I just stumbled in your question, I hope my comments are still useful for you (or other fellows here).
Starting from your question: Is it safe to use a 10 A charger in a 12 V 7.2 Ah Lead acid battery?
Short answer: Not as a stand alone charger. It is dangerous.
You most probably will “fry” the battery, not by overvoltage, but by overcurrent. This is more prone to happen if your battery is discharged lower than 12.0~12.5 V .
Not only you will damage the battery, it is also unsafe: The incompatible charging current will be too high to be chemically converted in the electrode plates and it will generate gas, raising the internal pressure, leaking acid or worse.
Quick and dirty solution: Select a “power resistor” or even better, a brake-light lamp (12 V, 21 W), which at 12 V sinks 1.7 A (= 21W/12V) and presents a resistance of 6.9 Ω. But as the filament of the lamp is incandescent, it is non-Ohmic and will present a much lower resistance when cold (typically R.cold ~ 20~30% R.hot).
So, if your small battery is flat (close to 0 volt), the lamp limits the current to 1.7 A, which is 24 % of 7.2 Ah rating = a safe charging rate.
By the way: anything higher than 20~30% might fry (or boil) most lead acid batteries, specially when voltages in the battery are close to 12~13 V .
In case the battery is partially recharged at 12 V and the charger is “smart”, it often limits its final voltage to 14.4 V. For this case, the lamp will see just 2.4 V of Delta-V. As the filament is cooler, and it might be a fraction of the hot value. As a general figure, the charging current passing through the lamp will be around:
I = ΔV/R.cold = (14.4 - 12) / (20 % of 6.9) = 1.7 A (less likely),
I = ΔV/R.cold = (14.4 - 12) / (30 % of 6.9) = 1.2 A (more likely).
and when fully charged at 13.5 V:
I.full = ΔV/R.cold = (14.4 - 13.5) / (20 % of 6.9) = 0.65 A (~ 9% of 7.2 Ah)
So, I’m proposing the use of the non-linear properties of a lamp to limit and to stabilize the current for your charger. The current will be maxed at 1.7 A (24 % of 7.2) for a flat battery, but will stay within 0.65~1.2 A during most of actual charging process.
Obviously this method can be adapted to other Lead-Acid Battery and Charger capacities. But unless allowed by the manufacturer, avoid charging at more than the suggested current limits. And be sure the charging voltage in the battery is always limited to 14.4 V nominal (can vary from 14.2 V @ summer to 14.6 V @ winter). And after battery is fully charged, your charger should reduce the voltage to floating values: around 13.5 V. If it does not reduce the final voltage, do not leave the charger connected longer than 24 hours for a full charge process.
I tried to summarize key figures and to propose a practical solution, but a more sophisticated circuit is always feasible (although more complex)
Final tip: Check the website “Battery University” - it provides much more battery-related information.