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I've build the following linear power supply:

enter image description here

Before building it I tried to model it in LTspice. I couldn't find an LTspice model of L4941BV LDO (datasheet [PDF]) or a suitable replacement. Thus I used the following "naive" model:

enter image description here

R1, R2, L1 and L2 are measured resistance and inductance of a transformer windings. V1 is 50Hz, amplitude: 310 V. Here is Vout:

enter image description here

My idea was following. Let's say that all extra voltage turns into heat, and also account for ~10 mA quiescent current of LDO itself. In other words assume that this circuit's output power is ~0.95W.

Naturally this model turns out to be inadequate. It predicts PF 0.442 and efficiency 32%. The real device can produce up to 217 mA before a noticeable ripple (60 mV) will be observed. Under these circumstances it's measured PF is 0.925, consumed power - 2.75 W and efficiency - about 39.5%.

I tried to play with values used in the model but didn't come even close to observed PF and efficiency. Thus it looks like a less naive model is required.

The problem is I have no clue how to make an accurate model of an LDO. Could you please explain how it can be done or at least suggest some literature on the subject.

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    \$\begingroup\$ I'm quite confused here, what you have built is not even near an LDO, it's not regulating anything at all, just a plain old unregulated AC-DC converter. Did you forget to show your "naive" version? \$\endgroup\$
    – pipe
    Jun 25 '20 at 11:39
  • \$\begingroup\$ Maybe replace the current sink with a ~30 ohm resistor and see if you can get the PF and voltages to agree with reality. Speaking of reality, in reality you would want a lot more voltage at the input of the regulator to account for mains variations. That particular regulator is a lateral PNP type that has an Iq spike near dropout, though not as severe as some, so it’s not as simple to accurately model as, say, a modern CMOS type. \$\endgroup\$ Jun 25 '20 at 11:44
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    \$\begingroup\$ You can use "NCP1117ST50T3G" spice model.Its output voltage 5V fixed like L4941BV and 1A. you can find model in the link .mouser.com.tr/ProductDetail/ON-Semiconductor/… \$\endgroup\$
    – GuneyBoss
    Jun 25 '20 at 11:52
  • \$\begingroup\$ @GuneyBoss The LM1117 types have much higher (like 5x higher) dropout voltage than the OP's regulator. They're really semi-LDO types. \$\endgroup\$ Jun 25 '20 at 12:14
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    \$\begingroup\$ @GuneyBoss At OP's 200mA operating current, the typical dropout of the NCP1117 is about 950mV compared to 150mV for the L4941. \$\endgroup\$ Jun 25 '20 at 14:03
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If you want to understand how LDOs work and how to simulate them i suggest much more reading. https://www.analog.com/en/analog-dialogue/articles/low-dropout-regulators.html is a decent start and I'm certain you could find a lot more.

Alternatively you could use a SPICE model of a LDO IC that is close to the one you have. You can find some at : https://www.pspice.com/models/rohm

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  • \$\begingroup\$ I guess I didn't explain the situation well enough. LDO was used next to the circuit shown, on OUT. I edited the text accordingly. \$\endgroup\$ Jun 25 '20 at 15:03
  • \$\begingroup\$ Ok, I understand. Can you show what you used as an LDO then ? \$\endgroup\$ Jun 25 '20 at 15:05
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    \$\begingroup\$ I will upload a complete schematic shortly. \$\endgroup\$ Jun 25 '20 at 15:06
  • \$\begingroup\$ The question was updated. \$\endgroup\$ Jun 25 '20 at 15:27

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