Of course it is possible.
But is does not work simply by connecting USB wires to camera. It just needs a interface board with chips that talk USB on one end and talk with the camera interface at the other end.
So if you know what interface the camera module has and what is the pinout mapping and voltage levels used on the camera, it can be interfaced. There might not be ready made modules for this so you would have to design the adapter electronics yourself.
In reality, if a random camera is taken out from a random dead phone, chances that anyone has the experience, enough time, money for tools and determination etc needed to figure out what interface and pinout and voltage levels the camera uses are quite small. So while a nice idea to reuse old modules, it will be cheaper to just buy a webcam.