Suppose I have a capacitor and I charge it up using a circuit with a battery to the maximum amount of charge that it could hold.
Now, I unplug the wires and insert a dielectric inside.
I know that electrostatic energy between the capacitor plates changes when I do this, however, where does this energy go/come from? Very specifically how does insertion of dieletric change the energy? Is there any intuition behind this?
Secondly, how would the charges on the capacitor change at the point where I remove the battery and also the point where I insert the dielectric?
Finally how would I find the maximum amount of charge that I can allocate onto the capacitor?
The kind of answer I am looking for:
One which explains using electronic demonstration motivated by some mathematically derived theoretical results
Further, I'd also like to know what would be the effect of 'induced charges' on these processes and if we can ignore them or not. How does charge conservation explain induced charges?