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On my understanding, a LockIn amplifier use an internal (or external) signal source, set to a given frequency, say x. The system locks into that frequency, which means only that frequency can be analyzed by the device. Is it right, that when the device is „locked“ on that frequency x, I could measure voltage noise of an amplifier (with shorted inputs, high noise amplification) on that frequency x. To get the whole frequency noise response, (1/f + white noise) I would need the setup to do a frequency sweep?

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If you can view the lockon amplifier's detector as a multiplier/lowpass, then you have a Correlation Filter.

So yes, by stepping the external reference frequency (to which the weak signal is expected have the same frequency), you can analyse the passband shape.

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