We know that Coding Theory depends on the fact that the probability
p of a bit flip must be less than
0.5. From Fundamentals of Error-Correcting Codes (pg.39), it states
In most practical situations
pis very small.
Using the technology we have in 2020 such as Fiber-optic cable, other types of cables, or wireless medium, what is the practical probability a bit encountering a flip during transmission?