I have several questions about the electrical systems used in the field and the grounding mechanisms.
So, as far as I understand there are multiple systems that can be used to distribute electrical current in the field: TT, TNS, TN-C, TN-C-S. In a single phase system it will be the live wire, ground and the protective ground (aka PE).
The TNS, TN-C and TN-C-S systems are relatively easy to understand, there is a clear path through wires for all of the signals (live, ground and PE), but for the TT system the PE will be connected separately using the grounding/bonding/earting (see last question) rod buried in the soil. And the current is supposed to flow through the ground back to the transformer in case of a ground fault. But here is my first question: How is this useful, the soil has a big resistance/impedance and that means it will cause a really small current to flow through it and maybe the breaker won't break. Also it is somehow confusing because searching the web, the actual resistance needs to be smaller then 200 ohm (TT system), maybe there is something that I don't understand, but having the transformer 100 meters away with a soil resistivity of 40 ohm*m (got it from random table found online for the best conductor soil) will give you at least 40 * 100 ohm (clearly bigger then 200?). Still looking on some YouTube videos some guys are measuring the Earth Ground Resistance and it's about 2.1 ohm ? Video for loop impedance.
The second question is about the Earth Clamp Resistance Meters. How are those doing their job ? As far as I understand they will induce a current in the loop and measure the current and using the Ohm law will deduce the resistance. But how is the loop formed, through the ground back to the transformer and then through the ground back to the device ? Can't really see the loop here.
And the last question is about the terms used, I need some explanation for the actual meaning, because when searching the web, people tend to interchange them whenever they want in a wrong way.
Grounding vs earthing vs bonding
PS: English is not my primary language. There is a very high chance that I've got everything wrong. These questions have haunted me for a long time, any online resources to further understand are highly appreciated.