I am not an electronics guy (CS guy) I understand what TCP/IP is I want to know what things are done in manufacturing an IC that is able to send and receive packets. How is a chip which works for sending receiving TCP/IP signals made.What are the things which exist on it and it is different from a USB chip.What are the essential difference from the point of view of hardware.Basically what I want to know how is TCP/IP protocol suit converted to an equivalent electrical circuit.What chips/ic's are working on routers,lan cards etc...and how do they work.

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    \$\begingroup\$ TCP/IP exist at a much higher level of extraction than physical circuits. They rely on lower level protocols to carry the data from one machine to the other. Those lower level protocols include specifications at the the physical ("PHY") layer, but TCP/IP is independent of any particular physical implementation. \$\endgroup\$ – The Photon Jan 1 '13 at 1:38
  • \$\begingroup\$ Please can you give me some words that I can google I am interested to read and understand those low lever details at Physical layer \$\endgroup\$ – Registered User Jan 1 '13 at 1:44
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    \$\begingroup\$ Start here: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OSI_model \$\endgroup\$ – The Photon Jan 1 '13 at 1:45
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    \$\begingroup\$ The one I know best is "IEEE 802.3", which is another name for Ethernet. Ethernet has multiple distinct physical versions, like "100BASE-T", "1000BASE-T", "10GBASE-LR", etc, which specify the details of how individual bits are encoded octet-by-octet and frame-by-frame and carried over a wire or optical fiber. \$\endgroup\$ – The Photon Jan 1 '13 at 1:49
  • \$\begingroup\$ yes that is what I am looking for.... \$\endgroup\$ – Registered User Jan 1 '13 at 1:51

As a few of the comments referred to, TCP/IP is a high level protocol that specifies how packets of data are sent and received. In fact, TCP sits on top of IP. These are actually separate from the lower level communications. For example you can have TCP/IP run on top of Ethernet which is the PHY (physical layer) specified by IEEE 802.3 specification. Also, it can run on top of 802.11 which is best known as WLAN (this forms the basis of WiFi). You could even run it on top of Infrared (802.11 actually specifies this) and several other PHYs. The following information should be helpful, especially the two app notes that are very practical instead of theoretical (as the spec would be).


Ethernet Theory of Operation

AN833 - Microchip TCP/IP Stack Application Note


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