# Inverting Amplifier Circuit using Single Power Rail

For my homework, we are supposed to simulate an inverting and noninverting amplifier using a single supply and the LM324 opamp. I built the inverting amplifier using a voltage divider, but my output voltage is not a sinusoidal wave rather a square wave that has a cutoff. The output signal should be amplified sinusoidal wave. so, how can I fix this?

Heres the schematic of the circuit: Here are the screenshots of the results Two problems; firstly you need to AC couple the 2.5 Vrms signal to the 470 ohm resistor (R1) or you inevitably are trying to force the op-amp to produce an output voltage that is highly offset from mid-rail: - If you can't AC couple, you should bias the 2.5 Vrms signal so that it has the same DC level as the node of R3 and R4. Maybe by doing this: - The 2nd problem is that 2.5 Vrms is 7.071 volts RMS and, with an amplifier gain magnitude of approximately 20 (R2/R1) the op-amp will try and produce an output level of 141.4 volts p-p. That of course is impossible for the LM324 or any op-amp on the limited power supply voltage of 9 volts.

• Other than decreasing the R2 and R1 ratio, Is there a way I can fix the 2nd issue, or is that an issue that exists in the simulation but not in the real world? Oct 29 '20 at 1:22
• You can't expect an op-amp to produce an output signal in peak-to-peak values that is close to or bigger than the voltage difference between its power rails @MohitSingh Oct 29 '20 at 9:05
• What you should consider doing next if you are done with this question and answer. If you need clarification, add a comment. Oct 29 '20 at 10:27