There appears to be a touch decoder IC on the flex ribbon, additionally the vendors site refers to the connection as an "I2C Cable" which is all very typical for such a setup.
Chances are someone who wanted to could identify the I2C touch sensor IC used, either visually, or by figuring out which driver is activated in the intended board's Linux kernel. There will probably also be associated configuration information or even a small firmware blob to inject at runtime. Because the kernel is required to be offered in source form, even if it's a custom driver one should be able to port it to a different board.
One would need to figure out the pinout of the I2C cable, but that's probably not too hard - especially if a data sheet for the touch controller can be found, a flex circuit is quite simple to trace visually, at most needing a photograph of each side to be taken and enlarged.
The most sensible way of connecting it to a Raspberry Pi would be to use the pi's I2C interface; indeed, that's exaclty how the offical pi touchscreen connects as well. The driver and configuration details brought over from the sources for the board it was intended to connect to may not be exactly the same as for the pi touchscreen, but there's a decent chance some version of the driver is already there.
If one really wanted a USB solution, then some sort of MCU with USB capability would need to be inserted in between, running a bit of custom firmware.
Or one could just buy a touchscreen sold to work on a pi...