There are no microcontrollers suitable for connecting directly to an analog phone home network.
- Analog phone networks have a (relatively) high DC voltage present on the wires. "High" in comparison to microcontroller voltages less than 100VDC, but it'll destroy any microcontroller that you connect directly to it.
- An analog phone network is controlled by either tones (sounds played into the wites) or pulses on the wires. No microcontroller has built in connections to do either.
This page describes building a microcontroller interface to a regular telephone line. (Link courtesy of The Wayback Machine.)
You'll need several ICs that may not be commonly available anymore.
Alternatively, you might dig up an old analog modem. Connect the serial port of a microcontroller to an RS232 converter, then connect that to the modem. Your microcontroller could then send commands to the modem for dialing or decoding signals.