Apologies for the vague title, wasn't sure how to summarize the question. I've been struggling with this for two days and feeling a bit desperate.
This is how I understand simple CMOS gates work in principle.
I also understand that microcontroller inputs should not be left floating since due to their high impedance they can self bias if so. So we use pull-up/down resistors. What I struggle to understand is, for example in the below we are providing a constant connection to Vcc. Why doesn't that permanently peg the input high, or at least cause issues since a 10K resistor is a comparatively low value considering the input impedance of the microcontroller?
My understanding is something like this would happen in principle (although of course the pins on the microcontroller would have a somewhat different design than an inverter gate)
Is this correct? If so in principle, unless there are some system specific restrictions, you could choose to design your circuit with either pull-up or pulldown resistors and appropriate switches, as you see fit?
I would really appreciate your input.