Basically, this circuit (transistor switch) needs only one resistor connected between the input voltage source and the base. The role of this base resistor is to expand the input voltage range of the transistor that is several hundred millivolts.
Why is there a need of the second input resistor connected between the base and emitter? It is necessary if the input voltage source is of the "open collector" type. Then zero input voltage means open input circuit and the base would be "floating". This is undesirable because all sorts of leaks and induced voltages can turn on the transistor. So, the role of the second resistor is to shunt the base-emitter junction thus zeroing the undesired parasitic voltages.
The collector resistor R34 would be necessary if an LED instead a lamp would connected in the collector. Diode elements, including LED, are voltage stabilizers that keep up a constant voltage drop across them (in the case of LED, it is about 2-3 V). So, the transistor will try to keep 12 V across the LED... while the LED will try to keep 2 V. As a result of this "conflict" between two voltage-type elements in parallel, the current will enormously increase... and some of them will be damaged. R34 prevents this by limiting the current.
In the future, follow this simple rule: There must be at least one resistor in a circuit of series-connected voltage sources and diodes.