For my application, I plan to use around 5xI2C devices that are wired to one Master device over a cable length of around 1-2m for each (so 10m in total), I can use a low pullup resistor of around 1-2kOhm to battle the parasitic capacitance.
Is there a chance that I do a sort of multiplexing and cut off the capacitances of the unused slave devices? I just want to read out one device at a time.
This I2C Multiplexer PCA9543A seems an option for my needs, please see the datasheet:
Capacitive Load Sharing - Adding more I2C and SMBus devices on the bus may exceed the 400 pF limitation. The multiplexers and switches can isolate devices that are not currently needed to reduce the overall system loading and maintain the total system load below 400 pF. When active, the channels act as a wire and the cumulative capacitive loading of the upstream channel and all active downstream channels must be considered.