Disclaimer: Hobbyist "maker" with limited experience and no relevant education. Please considerate and answer in detail. Feel free to skip to "Question".
I have an intention to build a simple solenoid for no other reason but my own interest. A basic review of theory brought me to the equation
B = μIN/L whereby
B = Field Strength,
μ = Magnetic Permeability,
I = Current,
N = Coil Turns and
L = Coil Length. For what ever reason my first observation was that there was surely an optimisation to be solved in the selection of wire gauge since an increased wire cross-section would increase your available
Current Capacity (I) but decrease the
Coil Turns (N) along a constant length. I then stopped short of attempting any calculation since
I being proportional to the cross section area of a wire (in terms of Ampacity) and
N being a first order relation, it seemed logic that the "bigger the wire the better, turns don't matter that much"... this can't be right. What further confused me was to investigate the current draw of commercial BLDC motors, of whatever size, and note that their amperage was surely beyond what would usually be carried on the wire gauges used for stators. Something to do with the AC driving? I sit confused.
- What is the optimal design approach for selecting wire gauge for electromagnetic coils of a given length and diameter?
- What factors are most import to consider?
- Are there conventions or standards I should know about?