I am currently building my own control board for a high power brushed DC motor (24V 16A). I am using an Arduino to provide a PWM signal to an IRLB8743 MOSFET. The reason I am trying to build my own is because I have blown up so many cheap unbranded controllers, and I want to implement a safe-boot routine and slow-start functionality, along with a few other custom functions.
From disassembling wasted boards, I have noticed that large electrolytic capacitors (63V 470uF) are placed in parallel across the power supply. From my knowledge, small 6V motors have ceramic capacitors across the terminals for smoothing.
Here is the schematic of the board I plan to create, but it is unfinished; I have salvaged two of these capacitors from other bards, but I can't decide where to put them. Should I copy the control boards, and place both caps at C1, or should I move one cap to C2 for some smoothing benefit? I don't really understand the purpose of either C1 or C2.
Another final mention is that I hope to swap out the motor in the future for an even bigger one, and maybe power it from 48V.