For my power system, let us suppose it has the following dynamic model: \$\ x ' = f(x,u)\$.

This dynamic model consists of four first order differential equations (see below).

Then, I linearized my system using Newton-Raphson method. My new linear system will be:

\$\ \Delta x ' = A \Delta x + B u +\$ disturbance


  • \$\ x \$ is the state vector that that contains 4 first order differential equations: (the power angle δ , the angular speed of the rotor ω, the generated voltage in the quadrature axis of the generator eq', and the field voltage of the generator in the direct axis \$\ E_d\$ ). a.k.a.: \$\ \Delta x = [\Delta \delta, \Delta \omega. \Delta e_q' , \Delta E_d ] ^T \$

  • \$\ u \$ is the control part. Let us make it zero for now

  • Let us assume that the disturbance in the power input of the generator is just 30% (0.3 pu) for only 1 second.

enter image description here

  • "A" is a 4 x 4 matrix. Let us say:

$$ A= \begin{bmatrix}1 & 2 & 3 &4\\5 & 6 &7 &8 \\9 & 1 & 2 & 3\\4 & 5 & 6 & 7 \end{bmatrix} $$

The question is:

How can I model the system shown above using MATLAB? I want to plot the four state variables, but I don't know where to begin

Is there any specific code that will help me to simulate this system.

  • \$\begingroup\$ Not sure what exactly you want to achieve, but usually the trick to modeling is staring with the errors (disturbance?) and then building it up backwards. \$\endgroup\$ Commented Feb 4, 2013 at 13:15

1 Answer 1


To solve this problem you should look at the ODE solvers in MATLAB.

Note that your function does not describe what the response of the system is to a variation in input power Pm.

Below I have written up an implementation, based on the example in http://www.its.caltech.edu/~ae121/ae121/ode45_Ref2.pdf . In my example I have added a term Pm to the differential equations, so you can see how a disturbance might affect the dynamics.

Unfortunately I don't have MATLAB installed so I can't check whether there are any errors in this, but the idea should be clear.

function main 
% a simple example to solve ODE's
% Uses ODE45 to solve 
%    dx_dt(1) = 1*x(1)+2*x(2)+3*x(3)+4*x(4)
%    dx_dt(2) = 5*x(1)+6*x(2)+7*x(3)+8*x(4)+Pm
%    dx_dt(3) = 9*x(1)+1*x(2)+2*x(3)+3*x(4)
%    dx_dt(4) = 4*x(1)+5*x(2)+6*x(3)+7*x(4)
%set an error

%initial conditions
X0 = [0;0;0;0]; 

%before disturbance
tspan1 = [-1,0]; 
[t1,X1] = ode45('system',tspan1,X0,options,Pm0);

%during disturbance
tspan2 = [0,1];
[t2,X2] = ode45('system',tspan2,X1(end),options,1.3*Pm0);

%after disturbance
tspan3 = [1,3];
[t3,X3] = ode45('system',tspan3,X2(end),options,Pm0);


%plot the results
hold on

function [dx_dt]= system(t,x,Pm) 
%a function which returns a rate of change vector
A = [1,2,3,4;
dx_dt = A*x+P; 

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