I'm doing some starter circuit design and assembly. I used a linear voltage regulator to provide 6V to an RC servo, which is nominally 6V driven. This was done on a PCB using a mix of SMT and hand solder (hand soldered regulator, SMT capacitors,) taking a 12V input and regulating it to 6V. I'm confident with digital design and with resistive loads, but this is my first foray into servos/motors.
The regulator I used was a TO-220 MC7806CTG, and it worked for a while, after soldering the regulator, and testing it 6V was correctly output.
However, whilst I was tuning the servo calibration, the servo stopped working, and I found that the voltage of the regulator was outputting 8.8V, rather than 6. I have capacitors on both input and output to ground, per the datasheet.
The servo datasheet (an acutonix PQ12-100-6-R) says it has a maximum draw of 500mA, but the regulator datasheet says that it should be good for 1A.
I know I've made a mistake (or multiple,) but I don't want to repeat the error - the servo isn't cheap, so I don't want to blow it.
I did not heat-sink the regulator. I thought at worst it would fail open, I also thought that the power draw I had was low, using a simple power calculation for the regulator (12-6)*0.5= 3W. I think this was a mistake, but am unsure if it was the sole problem.
How should I do the re-design? Should I add a large capacitor to the regulator output to suppress any inrush? Is just redoing the board and heat-sinking the regulator enough?