I've seen a Duracell alkaline AA battery on Amazon. It can supply 1.5 V, but I don't see any information about the current (in A) or the power (in W). Where can I find this information?
The datasheet for a Duracell AA alkaline cell shows that its voltage drops very quickly with a 1A load.
Beware: I bought some Duracell chargers that came with 4 AA Ni-MH cells and 4 AAA Ni-MH cells at Costco. The cost was lower than possible because the Duracell batteries were made in China with half the capacity of American or Japanese ones.
In the EE world, almost every question of this type will be answered by the manufacturers datasheet of the part in question. Here is the one for the Duracell AA you mentioned:
From the impedance of the battery, you only need Ohm's law to calculate the peak current and power the battery can supply. I'll leave the calculations for you and your understanding.
Here is a datasheet from Energizer instead which is more useful for your purpose. Inner resistance is listed as 150-300 mohm. Shoutout to @Hearth and @ScottSeidman for pointing this out.
In response to your comment to @winny's answer:
Is impedance of 120 m-ohm equals to R = 0.120 ohm, and so U = 1.5/0.120 = 12.5 A and so the current of this battery is 12.5 A?
You can draw 12.5 A into a short-circuit but a short circuit will have zero voltage and since P = VI you'll get P = 0 x 12.5 = 0 W.
The Maximum Power Transfer Theorem says that you will get maximum power when RL = RS so that would be 0.12 Ω load. The current would be reduced to 1.5/0.24 = 6.25 A and the power into the load (and dissipated in the battery) would be P = VI = 0.75 × 6.25 = 4.7 W.
is that true? It seems me too high 12.5 A for a battery like this...
Try it! It will deteriorate quickly as the cell's internal resistance increases.