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Hypothetically, if a circuit is potentially exposed to accidental polarity reversal (i.e. when a user connects positive to negative, and negative to positive by accident): When measuring the voltage using a voltage divider, I assume that the component which is receiving the voltage measurement signal will then be potentially exposed to reverse current.

Is the solution to still use a voltage divider and place a diode on the measuring component's ground connection, or should a voltage follower op amp be used to provide current isolation?

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The solution is usually to size the resistors in the potential divider such that the current flowing in the op-amp pin (due to reverse voltage) is below about 1 mA but, in any case check the data sheet for the op-amp because this limit value is usually stated.

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