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I'm trying to add a (resettable?) fuse to a circuit (24 VAC) which breaks a circuit when ambient temperature reaches a given temperature (say 60° C) in addition to current crossing a threshold.

All I could find were fuses for dryers - probably because I used the wrong keywords.

What is this safety equipment called so I can buy it? How would it be easiest to integrate it with a circuit which uses cables?

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There are thermal fuses. These are inexpensive, and can switch large amounts of current. They are, however, not resettable. Once they open, that's it. They usually carry a bevy of safety-agency approval marks since they are used to ensure safety of household appliances such as heaters and hair dryers.

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There are also resettable thermal cutoffs that require a button on the device to be pushed to reset the device.

Finally, there are thermostats which automatically reset once the temperature drops more than the hysteresis.

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There's a variety of temperature ranges and accuracies available, but generally they're a bit crude. If you need something relatively precise you may need an electronic thermostat or a circuit plus a sensor. The details will depend heavily on the actual requirements. Mechanical thermostats are practical up to perhaps 250°C, and thermal fuses tend to max out a bit below that.

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(Image source: AliExpress store: MRO Industrical Super Market)

There are NC thermal switches, they come with temperature ratings, select the proper one based on the ambient temperature at where you live. If the temperature rises above ambient the switch opens its contacts, cutting power to your circuit.

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