I think the answer boils down to the customer.
If you're a hobbyist trying to get a project together, then Arduino includes many example projects and a lot of tutorials on how to get things running. Programming it is a breeze because of the IDE. The integration job is amazing and it makes it easy for entry level.
The STM32F4 is an excellent board that in some ways might appeal to hobbyists because of the price, but in reality ST is trying to get at TI (which I believe popularized the inexpensive Launchpad or EZ430 board first). When ST is trying to find new customers, it's very cheap and easy to introduce them to the microcontrollers with this board. The customers are likely somewhat sophisticated at the use of microcontrollers and know that at some point they'll move to a dev board or their own design. When customers are looking for a microcontroller, ease of use is not first on their mind (though it sometimes should be). They're usually willing to deal with different toolchains, new configurations, etc because in the end it's a higher performance part with more capabilities and at a low price in quantities. The ease of use and community don't figure that much into the equation.