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Since normal antennas are placed in air or a vacuum, I was wondering what it would take to get an antenna to work underwater, especially in something conductive like seawater.

What would be the difference if the antenna was insulated or uninsulated?

Where would you start about calculating the lost power, for instance if where transmitting through a water filled cillinder or rectangular bucket?

I'm guessing an uninsulated transmitter/receiver pair in saltwater would behave much like there was a resistor attached in-between, does the skin-effect come into play here? How would the current distribute over the rectangular bucket if it does?

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    \$\begingroup\$ Does this answer your question? Short range - low bitrate data transmission under water \$\endgroup\$
    – Andy aka
    Commented Dec 2, 2021 at 18:52
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    \$\begingroup\$ Yes, but at very short range. \$\endgroup\$
    – user263983
    Commented Dec 2, 2021 at 18:56
  • \$\begingroup\$ Yes, somewhat. Especially the skin-depth and link to attenuation. However I'm still wondering about antennas in conductive materials. Do antennas need a dielectric to function correctly? \$\endgroup\$
    – N. Berg
    Commented Dec 2, 2021 at 19:13
  • \$\begingroup\$ @N.Berg You may want to review this paper. \$\endgroup\$
    – jonk
    Commented Dec 2, 2021 at 19:16
  • \$\begingroup\$ Applying voltage in high conductive material will cause short circuit and, probably, damage at signal source.. \$\endgroup\$
    – user263983
    Commented Dec 2, 2021 at 19:59

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