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I remember learning about how to use the Lloyd's Algorithm to create the transfer function for a minimum mean squared error (MSE) quantizer as an undergrad, but have never seen this method used in an actual quantizer. The discussion in school was purely theoretical and we never discussed how and where it is actually applied although it seems like it could be useful in some circumstances when you're measuring a signal with a non-uniform distribution. So my questions are:

  1. How is such a device actually designed (from a high level perspective)? For example, how does the hardware design for a Lloyd-Max quantizer differ from that of a typical SAR or Delta-Sigma ADC to purposefully create a non-uniform distribution of codes?

  2. Where is such a quantizer actually used in industry if at all? From what I can tell on Google, most sites that mention the Lloyd-Max quantizer are links to research or education on the topic. I imagine that if my professor felt the need to teach it in an undergrad class though, it is probably used outside of the world of academia. The Wikipedia article I linked lists broad applications of the algorithm with no mention of how it is applied in a quantizer for a specific technology.

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