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I want to power my project(AVR uC + RF transceiver) with a fake iPhone charger whose internal is the same as this one, but with a smaller input and output capacitor. I therefore suspect that the output will be similar: source (under Counterfeit iPhone)

The oscilloscope traces show the output signal (yellow) and frequency spectrum (orange). The left images provide high-frequency information on the output voltage. The right images show the low-frequency information on the output voltage.

How to smooth the output? Bigger input and output capacitors, buck converter, filter or extra rectifier + filter stage?

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You can further smooth the output by increasing the output capacitance, but to power a MCU or RF transceiver I would use an LDO or buck converter(if efficiency is important) .

Your voltage will have to come down slightly but your chip will most likely run from 4V fine if you were able to run them with 5.

Your RF chip will probably have an input ripple requirement that will need to be taken into account when selecting an LDO along with peak current requirement.

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