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I'm planning a modular and swappable battery system where each module is for example 12S2P (2 parallel Li-Ion battery connected in 12S.)

Can I connect two 12S2P modules in parallel making it a 12S4P providing each module has the same voltage and BMS?

Edit: @Finbarr thanks, I've already read the first, the second one partially answer, it seems to be a similar situation. The answer concerns were about the sudden load on one of the packs when one dies (not a concern in my case) and about recharging and BMS chaining that can be "solved" by charging each module individually and setting the same Voltage in the BMS?

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My primary concern to address your question:

Can I connect two 12S2P modules in parallel making it a 12S4P providing each module has the same voltage and BMS?

My concern would be about battery packs being at the same State of Charge (SoC), battery-pack size and age.

If you assure your setup has “the same voltage and BMS”, you most probably will be ok.
Probably, because the battery packs should also have the same Ah capacity and similar age, so the internal resistance along the discharge curve is similar. And that both battery-packs are protected from overcharge and overdischarge.
If these concerns are addressed, you will be good.

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You can do anything you want with specs for Delta V, ESR and I max. How you achieve this depends on those specs probably with switching L regulators to equalize V and stay under I max.

dI=dV dt / L with low DCR and FET and diode rated for 10*Imax for efficiency using hysteric feedback. This essentially an active BMS for transition from 24P2S to 12S4P with dV=12S difference.

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