I'm using the circuit in the picture to control a 12 V DC motor with an ESP32.
Do I need an extra pull-down resistor between the microcontroler pin and ground to avoid my pin floating and maybe activating my MOSFET?
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No. Your existing gate drive circuit acts as a voltage divider decreasing the voltage on the MOSFET gate. Move the pull down resistor (R2) to the pin of the micro and the driver should work fine. The 1N4001 diode is not needed as the MOSFET is avalanche rated but it does not hurt anything. The motor connected to the 3V3 of the micro is a bad idea. You need to power it externally.