# What circuit for the following input and output?

What circuit can I use to generate the following waveform, preferably using discrete components like transistors and resistors, but not ICs?

• Assuming this is just an exercise, (rather than an excuse for a \$1 microcontroller), design the circuit on paper or with a simulator using simple logic gates and perhaps a flip-flop. Then (if you must) convert the gates and flip-flop to their equivalent transistor configurations. Have you made any attempt to design this at all?
– Nedd
Jun 28, 2022 at 5:28
• @Nedd, yes, thanks for replying. So, what are the IC that can allow me to do such operaton? Jun 28, 2022 at 5:30
• @catherinetan You may want something that changes state on both rising and falling edges. If you use digital logic, this may mean mixing FFs to support both rising edge and falling edge clock transitions. If you use analog design rules, then this may mean a couple of input capacitors to opposite polarity circuits. There is no "IC that can allow" you to do the above. Or, at least, I've never noticed one. For digital, I might consider a 2-FF twisted ring Johnson counter plus an inverted clock FF to create the states and use a table driven design. There's a design process, regardless.
– jonk
Jun 28, 2022 at 5:36
• @catherinetan From your earlier questions, especially those showing "near zero" skill at designing RTL logic gates from discretes, or understanding how to create a schmitt trigger from discretes, it's my opinion that you have a lot of ground to cover before you are ready for any of what you've been asking about. Just my opinion, though, given what I've seen. I think you need to slow down and take it easy, for a while. Pace yourself.
– jonk
Jun 28, 2022 at 5:37
• @jonk, right. Thank you, I will read more on the 2-FF twisted ring Johnson counter plus an inverted clock FF that you stated :) Jun 28, 2022 at 5:41

Using reduction methods, and analyzing trace in question, reduction in realization is possible, this is a synchronous divided by 2/3 counter with 75 % duty factor.

XOR gates ( and diode bridges) both are simple frequency pulse doublers (2f) Simple divide by 3 counters are 50 % duty factor, so by using the 2f circuit first the result is x2 /3 with 2/3 and 1/3 duty factor of both Q outputs.

The NOR was used by De Morgan's Law such that when Q1,Q2 count to 00 the D1 goes to 1. for 1/3 duty factor, thus Q2bar or !Q2 is the output.

The logic derived from the drawing is that from every third transition, output a negative pulse approximately 50% of the clock rising edge interval. This could be made more precise if there were specs to indicate input, output and environment tolerances.

A simple edge detect circuit uses an XOR gate with an RC delay on the same signal for the other input, for any pulse width sufficient to trigger a 1 shot or use FET switches and inverted clock to select normal or inverted input clock and suppress metastable (race) glitches outputs with an RC LPF filter, when both 1f and f/3 inputs are changing.

Divide by 3 counters are common to find can also be done with gated one shots to permit a trigger edge between 2 and 4 clock cycles at f within tolerances.

Using logic inverters as one-shots with Diode+C series and R shunt can be easily made so this could be done easily this way too using a discrete CMOS 1-shot design.

Many other ways are also possible depending on how many are produced and how many pennies per design in total cost.

## Why is deadtime needed and where is it used?

https://www.mdpi.com/2079-9292/8/2/196/htm