I know that at a given frequency and therefore wavelength, a dipole antenna that is too (electrically) short looks capacitive, and one that is too long looks inductive. I can see it on the Smith Chart, and I can counteract it e.g. by "loading" a short antenna with an inductor. There are also some thought experiments out there, e.g. "0 length dipoles", that show why a short antenna must be capacitive to make sense.
But what I don't understand is what actually happens to the electromagnetic field to make the antenna look like an inductor or capacitor at the given wavelength.
I do (roughly, at least) know how current is distributed along a mismatched dipole: On a short dipole, the current is roughly triangularly distributed, because as you get closer to the extreme slope of the sine lobe the slope looks more and more linear. On a long dipole, you get larger and larger (and then more and more) opposite sign current lobes that cancel the electric field.
But how that makes the dipole effectively a capacitor or an inductor, I don't understand. I guess there must be some analogy on how the fields look and/or behave to how they do on either component. Is there some intuitive, maybe even visual explanation?