This classic circuit is a monostable multivibrator. Of which the most well-known chip is the 555.
This is from Art of Electronics 3ed, p460:
Another well-known chip is the LTC6993, good for up to about 30 seconds:
If, for whatever reason, you want a purely digital chip, consider a very small microcontroller such as an ATTiny with the appropriate trivial program. Many microcontrollers have internal resonators and would need no external components.1
Honestly, any microcontrol would work. This particular one has an internal 128 kHz oscillator.
This is from ATTiny13 datasheet
If, for whatever reason, you can't use capacitors or inductors, you can do delays in the range of seconds to hours the really old way: a cam timer. Incredibly, are still in stock at some major distributors for about €50! (I've actually used one to soak test microprocessor designs!)
Note 1: Well, no external components other than decoupling capacitors. Horowitz and Hill say, (p 19),