Well, the key point is that your output has 1.19V peak-to-peak, a far cry from the 12.6Vpp on the input. This just means that your circuit is far too slow to follow the input signal. It is not a matter of too low supply voltage or the output signal would not have sharp triangular corners but a more clipped look.
Now the TL072 has a specified output slew rate of 13V/µs which is far more than we need for the signal: a 145kHz signal is roughly 1Mradian/sec and with an amplitude of 6.3V, we need to support a slew rate of 6V/µs which is half of what we should be able to do while the output is (squinting) about 0.3V/µs.
Suspect #1 would be your supply lines of ±12V. As said elsewhere, you need a bypass capacitor across the supply lines that will support surge demands of current without having to go through long connections.
Apropos long connections: you write
you can see there is a small strip of short wire connecting pin 1 to 2
but frankly, there is no "short wire" anywhere on the photograph: not a single wire is short enough to fit wholly on the photograph. With comparatively high frequencies, that is also asking for trouble.
Then the output current of the TL072 is 10mA. That means that to support a slew rate of 6V/µs, the load capacity must not exceed 1.6nF, and that leaves us with no extra current for the ohmic part of the load.
What kind of load capacity/resistance has your probe? Looks like a 50ohm cable...
The manual of your oscilloscope has some calibration instructions akin to
Check the shape of the display waveform, and if necessary, adjust the variable capacitance on the probe with a non-metallic screwdriver until the waveform displayed on the screen is “properly compensated” as shown in the figure below.
Did you properly "adjust the variable capacitance"? Because that could be the elephant in the room...