I am studying a system in 5G which are represented as a combination terrestrial and non-terrestrial network (including satellite segments or HAP/LAP) [5G NTN]

it is a unified terrestrial aerospace network = a space segment- ground station - user equipment.

I understand it that if I want to compute link budget, I cannot compute link budget separately, it is unified, it should be studied jointly.

There is a lot publication about 5G NTN system, but I didn’t find an explanation how I can compute link budget for this system.

Could someone please explain how I can compute link budget such system?

PS unified - seamless integration of satellite and terrestrial components. it makes to enable 5G user terminals on or close to the earth’s surface to connect to non-terrestrial base stations located on satellites.

As I understood, in such system we cannot differently study links, satellite - ground station, ground station- user terminals, satellite- user terminals. The link should be studied as link satellite-ground station-user terminals. it will be one complete link

EDIT 1: Andy aka comment

From: "Non-Terrestrial Network Realities Call for New 5G Testing Approaches"

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About frequencies:

For FR1, 3GPP reached an agreement for the following NTN bands:

  1. • 1980-2010MHz / 2170-2200MHz is the “S-band”; In the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), this band is identified for both satellite and terrestrial component of the International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT) frameworks
  2. • Part of the L-band is allocated to Maximum Segment Size (MSS), depending on GEO/non GEO composition

EDIT 2 Marcus Müller comment

5G standards make Terrestrial Networks and satellite/HAP/LAP segments part of the ecosystem of the 5G connectivity infrastructure.

As I understood, it is like hybrid system, which uses a ground system and space system together to create a link.

  • \$\begingroup\$ Please embed a picture of the set-up you are considering and mark on the picture the carrier frequencies used along with data rates. \$\endgroup\$
    – Andy aka
    Commented Nov 2, 2022 at 13:37
  • \$\begingroup\$ please really add more information. Maybe the references Noel Miller cites here are relevant to this question as well? \$\endgroup\$ Commented Nov 2, 2022 at 15:49


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