I think this is a good learning experience.
- Forget about noise!
For now, don't think so much about noise. It is never a problem. Even the worst opamps have maybe 2uV RMS noise which is tiny compared to audio signal levels. Your enemies are distortion and mains interference. Once you have solved these, you can think about low noise amplifiers and resistors.
Also filtering noise is not a concern. For such a mic, the entire audible range is the signal bandwidth. Of course there will be signal and noise at higher and lower frequencies, but you can't hear these anyway. And in any recording interface, they will be cut out by its anti-aliasing filters.
- Low distortion
For most basic op-amps that means an inverting configuration. Another advantage of this scheme is that you get to set the input impedance very deterministically. You can AC-couple the input if you want to use a single supply voltage. In this case, use a capacitor without voltage dependence, e.g. electrolytic or foil. But don't use Class II/III ceramics, because again they can lead to distortion and are themselves also (piezoelectric) microphones.
Finally make sure that the amp has enough slew-rate, or distortion will increase.
A good gain value to start of is ~100, which would require at least 5 MHz gain bandwidth to have some headroom. If you want to use much higher gain towards 1000, it is probably better to cascade two stages.
A basic inverting amplifier doesn't have balanced inputs, but that is not so critical.. the important part is that the input is differential. See below..I suggest that you postpone buffers to a possible second iteration. Because non-inverting buffers might introduce distortion again. Inverting buffers add noise, but less distortion. Omitting buffers will add neither, but might be more susceptible to interference.
- Mains interference
This is mainly about two things: The most important one is understanding where signal currents flow and where they shouldn't flow. XLR mics are a good case because they use proper differential signaling to become highly immune to interference pickup. That also means that you shouldn't mess up the cabling.
The other aspect is making sure, that your supply voltage has very little differential voltage in the audio frequency range, e.g. mains harmonics. Ideally, the supply is absolutely stiff. For audio frequencies, this can be either achieved by lots of electrolytic capacitors or by linear regulators. Batteries are also an option.