There are hundreds if not thousands of different PTC resettable fuses with a wide array of Time-Current Characteristics. Consider the Littelfuse 60R010:
- It has a Hold-Current rating of 0.1A which is the "Maximum current the PTC will pass without tripping in 20C still air".
- It has a Trip-Current rating of 0.2A which is the "Minimum current at which the PTC will trip in 20C still air".
- The PTC's datasheet provides an Average Time-Current Curve which provides an estimated "time-to-trip" for different currents (all at 20C still air).
Also, fuses ARE indeed meant to protect sensitive electronics:
- Cheap Chinese consumables may be designed to only prevent a fire, but these are throw-away devices. They are not exactly a "role model" for best practice design.
- An embedded design engineer may utilize multiple resettable or non-resettable fuses within a design to protect every trace, passive component, IC, etc. from an overcurrent condition.
- For aerospace designs and/or life-critical devices, fuses are employed to protect everything. A single wisp of semiconductor smoke can ground a plane (or a fleet of planes). A fuse may open a faulty circuit while allowing other parts of the circuit to continue functioning.
USB devices are not intended to pass 20A; however, current is always: I = V/R. If the voltage is high enough, or if the cable resistance is low enough, large currents can pass. USB cable is typically comprised of relatively small wire (i.e. 28AWG). At approximately 65milliohms per foot, a 1-foot 28AWG wire shorted to ground could result in 75A when connected to a 5VDC power supply.
NOW TO ANSWER THE ORIGINAL QUESTION: Will the LDO and ferrite bead survive the 0.1sec high current pulse?
Short answer: Yes, the LDO and ferrite bead will likely survive the pulse if the PTC trip-current is specified correctly
Longer Answer: The LDO may have an internal overcurrent protection circuit that protects it (check datasheet). The total input impedance of your circuit will likely limit the short-circuit current from exceeding 20A. Component manufacturers often provide pulse-withstanding data for their devices. They understand that inrush currents and short-circuit currents exist, and therefore test their devices to determine their maximums. If your components do not offer this data, try another manufacturer. A proper design should be able to use one or more resettable or non-resettable fuses to protect every component. Finally, a PC's USB port is already protected, as others here have suggested.