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We are unable to generate a sine signal properly using a MC68HC908GP32 microcontroller. PWM description begins in page 349. Clock frequency is 2.4MHz, while we have used 7 kHz PWM by using the prescaler and setting the timer modulo to 350 as follows:

T1SC = 0x60;    // Prescaler: Div entre 64
//Counter modulo = 0x015E = 350
T1MODH = 0x01;   // High
T1MODL = 0x5E;   // Low

The PWM output is filter by the following RLC filter, and then DC is removed using a series 1uF cap. The cutoff frequency is way below PWM's 7kHz.

enter image description here

First, we have tried using a LUT, which samples were generated using this site (100 samples, amplitude = 250). This comprises a single period.

 int seno[100]={ 125, 133, 141, 148, 156, 164, 171, 178, 185, 192, 198, 205, 211, 216, 221, 226, 231, 235, 238, 241, 244, 246, 248, 249, 250, 250, 250, 249, 248, 246, 244, 241, 238, 235, 231, 226, 221, 216, 211, 205, 198, 192, 185, 178, 171, 164, 156, 148, 141, 133, 125, 117, 109, 102, 94, 86, 79, 72, 65, 58, 52, 45, 39, 34, 29, 24, 19, 15, 12, 9, 6, 4, 2, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, 19, 24, 29, 34, 39, 45, 52, 58, 65, 72, 79, 86, 94, 102, 109, 117}; 

The width of the following pulse is computed every PWM cycle:

interrupt 4 void rsi_t1ch0 (void)
{
    //-- disable interruption flag
    T1SC0&=(~0x80);
    //-- pwm to '0' 
    PTB&=0xFD;

    //some sensor measures are done here.... 100 out of the 350 cycles are left for this                
}
/************************************************************/
/* TIM1 overflow rutine                                     */
/************************************************************/
interrupt 6 void rsi_ov1 (void)
{

    T1SC&=(~0x80);
    //-- set PWM to 1
    PTB|=0x02;
    T1CH0H = ((seno[fase])>>8);   // high bits
    T1CH0L = (seno[fase])&0xFF;   // low bits
    fase+=1;
    if (fase >= 99)
      fase=0;
}

void main(void)
{
float temp;
    int i;

    CONFIG1|=0x01;  
    DDRB=0xFF;      //-- Port B is set as output
    PTB=0x00;       
    //Timer setup
    T1SC = 0x60;    // Prescaler: Div by 64  
    T1MODH = 0x01;   //Counter modulo
    T1MODL = 0x5E;  
    T1SC0 = 0x50;  //Comparator setup
    //-- Initial width
    T1CH0H = 0x00;
    T1CH0L = 0x53;

    EnableInterrupts;
    T1SC&=~(0x20); //Run timer forever
    for(;;);   
}

When pluggin it into the scope, we get the following signal. We are unable to avoid that strange peak near the minimum.

enter image description here

When zooming around that peak, we can see how the PWM output (up) is in fact incorrect.

enter image description here

So, after messing around for a while and being unable to get rid of it, we have tried computing the sine signal in the MCU, instead of hard coding the value for each sample. We have added the following code in the main function, just before all the counter setup:

 for(i=0;i<99;i++) {
     temp=100*(sin(2*3.14159*i/100)+1);
     seno[i]=(int)temp;
 }

But results don't even look like a sinusoid:

enter image description here

After hours struggling with it, we haven't been able to find our mistake. We would appreciate a piece of advice.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Could you post the entire list of PWM values? \$\endgroup\$ – pjc50 Apr 24 '13 at 13:16
  • \$\begingroup\$ @pjc50 Here it is: pastebin.com/sNyA0Hki . Thank you very much. \$\endgroup\$ – Serge Apr 24 '13 at 13:23
  • \$\begingroup\$ Try replacing all the "0" values in the middle with "1"; I suspect that 0 gives you that wide high signal rather than a low signal that you want. \$\endgroup\$ – pjc50 Apr 24 '13 at 13:32
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Serge - Please inline the data. The paste might go away and it would be bad to loose a part of the question. But please format it so it doesn't use that much space. Thanks. \$\endgroup\$ – Trygve Laugstøl Apr 24 '13 at 13:57
  • \$\begingroup\$ It's clearly not the filter - good luck - looks your your table is becoming corrupted or you lose your pointer to it. \$\endgroup\$ – Andy aka Apr 24 '13 at 14:28
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On the bottom of page 350 of the microcontroller datasheet, it mentions that writing a small value to the timer value register during the overflow interrupt might cause the next interrupt to be triggered only on the next pwm iteration, since the timer continues to count while the interrupt routine is being executed.

An unsynchronized write to the TIM channel registers to change a pulse width value could cause incorrect operation for up to two PWM periods. For example, writing a new value before the counter reaches the old value but after the counter reaches the new value prevents any compare during that PWM period. Also, using a TIM overflow interrupt routine to write a new, smaller pulse width value may cause the compare to be missed. The TIM may pass the new value before it is written.

This is confirmed by the fact that the pwm value is held high for one entire pwm clock period + what looks like the timer length (based on the surrounding lengths). The value being written to the timer length register is probably close to 0 at the time of error, so it is quite viable that the counter has passed the smaller value during the interrupt, and would only trigger on the following cycle.

This could be fixed by increasing the sinusoid minimum level to a level higher than the time it takes to execute the ISR, or changing the mechanism by which the new level is set. The top of page 351 details how this may be done.

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    \$\begingroup\$ I don't know how I could skip that when reading the datasheet. Thank you! \$\endgroup\$ – Serge Apr 25 '13 at 13:02

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