This light bulb is classified by its manufacturer in Europe as a Classic A 7W 230V 2700K 806lm B22d bulb. To me this bulb has the appearance of an incandescent light bulb with thin filaments of yellow/orange conducting material which give off the glow. I thought an LED was a surface mounted device (SMD) on a PCB. Can someone please explain what allows this type of bulb to have an LED classification? Are the LEDs located somewhere on the conducting material?
The LEDs are hiding in the filaments.
Surface mount LEDs can now be made very small. Each filament in this style of lamp has a long string of surface mount blue or violet LEDs wired in series. The entire filament is then coated in yellow phosphor, so that it glows with (something approximating to) white light.
The total number of LEDs wired in series is chosen to match the expected supply voltage (120V or 230V, typically). The manufacturer may wire the filaments in series or parallel, as required.
The AC-to-DC conversion is done in the base of the lamp.
Just like the LED devices you know are a semiconductor device (the actual light-emitting diode) embedded in a light-conducting plastic:
The LED devices actually are the yellow elements. They are a series of the actual diodes, usually on a transparent substrate, with traces to connect them that are thin enough to not be obvious to the eye.