I have an ethernet cable that is hooked up to a 20 foot long 24 AWG twisted pair cable. The twisted pairs are not twisted to the same wires like in the ethernet cable. Would this be a problem? I imagine that it could be, considering that the signal between the wires is differential. Edit: Both the number of twists, and the wires aren't twisted with the same wire on each cable. I will take both as an answer. Additionally, there are 6 different breaks in the cable connected by terminal blocks. I am unsure if this will cause significant reflections or differences in resistance?
Three things to check:
- (1) Are the pairs done up as... pairs?
- (2) Are the characteristics of your 24AWG twisted-pair consistent with Cat5e (same differential impedance, reasonable loss / crosstalk, etc.)
- (3) Do the pairs in your 24AWG cable have differing twist rates to reduce inter-pair crosstalk?
For (1), pair-wise connection is essential. Fix this first: make the wiring pair-to-pair. It will not work otherwise. If your cable uses punch-down connection this should be easy to fix.
For (2), this will depend on your required cable run length. The longer the run, the more important this will be owing to losses in the cable. While 20' is pretty long, 10/100 is pretty forgiving. 24 AWG twisted-pair is typically in the 100 ohm range anyway, even if it's not specified as impedance controlled. Toss-up.
For (3), this is again length-dependent. And again, 20' is kind of on the long side. Also a toss-up.
This all said, is it a big problem to secure an actual by-dog Cat5e cable for your run, lest there be any question of your link signal integrity? Cat5e wire is cheap; downtime not so much.
If you're facing pushback on getting the right Cat5e cable for the 20' run, get access to a network cable tester to evaluate the quality of the overall cable plant. This rules out any guesswork on your part.
Yes, that is a big problem - being untwisted would be very bad, but being twisted with the wrong pairs is extremely bad. The signals are differential to each other - there are 4 pairs of signals, and each pair has a plus and a minus. When the plus switches, the minus switches in the opposite direction, to cancel out emi and reduce interference. If you twist the plus from one pair to a signal from another pair, you remove all the benefits of the twisting, and add extra problems, like the wires interfering with each other. I wouldn't be surprised if this is a big problem for even the slowest common type of Ethernet.
AFAIK, the amount of twist isn't specified anywhere, other than all four pairs should have different rates of twist. The big problem would be the impedance mismatch, assuming your 24 AWG cable is not 100-ohm or not specified; and the step change in impedance at the junction between the two. 10/100 can be surprisingly forgiving though so you might be able to make it work but I wouldn't trust it to anything critical.
Edit: and yes, as @BeB00 says, if the wires aren't twisted to the same pairs (e.g. Rx+ twisted to Tx+) then I wouldn't even bother trying.
The twisted pairs are not twisted to the same wires like in the ethernet cable. Would this be a problem?
The bigger question is whether the cable characteristic impedances are the same.
If they are the same then having a different twist length isn't going to be a significant problem. If the cable characteristic impedances are different then you might hit significant problems.
Depends on how long the cable is untwisted for. I had a prototype that I bought a female ethernet extension cable to use for the already made female termination on one end and it had straight wire in it! I used the straight wire for 2 feet. It worked fine but I would not use this in a normal product.
That being said, CAT 5 runs at 100MHz, which is a wavelength of ~120in or 3m. So a small fraction of this is probably not going to create an issue because if you create a stub that is a small fraction (like 1/5th) it's probably not going to create reflections. You'll also get some attenuation and the wire will be more succeptable to noise because you are making the loop area between wires larger.