Do corner-grounded deltas exist outside of USA? If yes, where?
Where do you find information about this? Is there an IEC standard that dictates which transformers exist where?
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By my experience, tertiary windings with on single point grounded are used all around the world. IEEE C57.158-2017 provides recommendations for such practice (if you look to the participants list, there people from many different countries).
I live in Brazil, and I can say that here it's almost omnipresent in the entire transmission system.
Note: this single point grounded deltas are used in medium voltage (like between 15 and 36kV). Regarding low voltage (i.e., <1kV), I never saw any of it here.
I know by experience it exists in Uruguay, and I can even say they sometimes even change the grounding point. I noticed it once when mounting an LED lamp in the backyard. Depending on which wire I chose as neutral (which isn't defined) you had a small glow when the lamp was off or not. I, of course, chose the wiring so that it didn't glow. A few months later, the operator changed the grounding and it started glowing. You have quite a variation on the electrical codes across countries. In Argentina, for example, they use star, and the neutral is tied to ground, therefore if you get a 3 phase machine the neutral will usually be connected to ground. If you plug that in in a country that doesn't do that it will trip the differential.