# Impedance matching on VNA does not match calculation (with detail steps included)

I have a PCB with a pi-matching network, and I want to calculate the component values for the matching network.

I use LiteVNA and a WE-MCA Multilayer Chip Antenna for this project.

Here is the basic setup of the testing PCB. I use a 10 cm long RG316 coaxial cable:

First, I calibrate the VNA with OPEN, SHORT and LOAD shown in the picture. Measured impedance for OPEN, SHORT and LOAD is now a dot on the Smith chart.

After measuring the antenna impedance with a series 0 Ω resistor, the result is 5 - j62.

Then I add a series inductor. After several attempts, instead of 5 nH under calculation, I found that 7.3 nH should be fine; it will move the point on the Smith chart to somewhere near DP2.

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab

The measured impedance with a series 7.3 nH inductor:

Here comes the problem: when I add the SRC shunt capacitor, the impedance becomes unpredictable. For example, when I add 1 pF to the SRC shunt, the expected result is:

simulate this circuit

However, the measured result is:

When I replace 1 pF with 3.9 pF, the impedance is :

The result follows a completely different arc, and I don't know how to match it to 50 Ω. Does anyone know what is going wrong?

I understand components are not ideal, but I think the result is completely out of prediction. I doubt that it really can be explained by the non-ideality of the components.

I tested serval online calculators; basically all show the same result. They should follow the same equations to calculate the impedance. Is there any other model/equation I should consider?

• What series and manufacturer are you using for the 7.3nH and 1pF components ? Have you considered if your on-line simulator uses acceptable frequency models for the simulation or are the passive components assumed to be ideal ? Commented Nov 22, 2023 at 13:08
• I also considered would it be the components issue, so I bought some rf capacitor and inductor: cap datasheet ind datasheet I bought a 2pF rf capacitor to replace the 1pF capacitor, the result is 1.5 - j42, no significant change, also fall to the bottom of the smith chart, so I think its not the components issue. Commented Nov 23, 2023 at 6:10
• but you still haven't given us the Manufacturer and the specific part numbers and or links to the datasheets etc ... Commented Nov 23, 2023 at 8:16
• Sorry I can't put more links into the post so I puts the datasheet links in the above comment (cap datasheet) (ind datasheet) mouser.hk/datasheet/2/40/600L-2899701.pdf mouser.hk/datasheet/2/281/1/JELF243A_0100-1380931.pdf Commented Nov 23, 2023 at 9:03