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The following statements are results of my research:

If a circuit contains an inductor or capacitor there is reactive power. The vector product of reactive power and actual power is the apparent power.

To make an electric device work we need to transmit the apparent power via the grid. To minimize the need to install transmission infrastructure we want to reduce reactive power because this also reduces apparent power.

Inductive reactive power and capacitive reactive power cancel each other out.

In a grid both kinds of reactive power are generally not balanced. Special stabilization service providers are getting paid to do the balancing.

Question: Can we balance reactive power right within devices in order to relieve the grid and make the balancing service providers redundant? Why isn't this currently done?

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  • \$\begingroup\$ I already commented under a previous question of yours that exactly that is done, here. \$\endgroup\$ Nov 26, 2023 at 3:00
  • \$\begingroup\$ @MarcusMüller you told me that some devices I listed use switch-mode power supplies and that these need power factor correction. However, as far as I understand that is neither capacitive nor inductive reactive power. It is harmonic. I don't understand that concept yet. My question had another focus than your answer. Thanks to Mattman944 I learned I also have to learn about equipment recitfiying AC current to understand the whole picture. \$\endgroup\$ Nov 29, 2023 at 14:16

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Can we balance reactive power right within devices in order to relieve the grid and make the balancing service providers redundant? Why isn't this currently done?

Because it costs money, people need to be motivated by financial reasons or laws.

In many areas, factories are penalized by the electric company if their power factor is poor. For them, it pays to add capacitors to improve the power factor.

For residential devices, The EU has passed laws that requires manufacturers to meet certain power factor requirements for some devices, see the last paragraph in this section: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_factor#Switched-mode_power_supplies

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