1
\$\begingroup\$

does someone have the minimum setup (ie. a 1284p Makefile and an example blink.c) for an ATMega1284p and AVR-GCC? I seem to be stuck setting things up with using the Arduino IDE and I'd like to test my breadbord setup with a simple blinking LED to rule out any mistakes here.

These is some information:

Makefile:

#----------------------------------------------------------------------------
# On command line:
# make all = Make software.
# make clean = Clean out built project files.
# make coff = Convert ELF to AVR COFF.
# make extcoff = Convert ELF to AVR Extended COFF.
# make program = Download the hex file to the device, using avrdude.
#                Please customize the avrdude settings below first!
# make debug = Start either simulavr or avarice as specified for debugging,
#              with avr-gdb or avr-insight as the front end for debugging.
# make filename.s = Just compile filename.c into the assembler code only.
# make filename.i = Create a preprocessed source file for use in submitting
#                   bug reports to the GCC project.
# To rebuild project do "make clean" then "make all".
#----------------------------------------------------------------------------


# MCU name
MCU = atmega1284p


# Processor frequency.
#     This will define a symbol, F_CPU, in all source code files equal to the
#     processor frequency. You can then use this symbol in your source code to
#     calculate timings. Do NOT tack on a 'UL' at the end, this will be done
#     automatically to create a 32-bit value in your source code.
#     Typical values are:
#         F_CPU =  1000000
#         F_CPU =  1843200
#         F_CPU =  2000000
#         F_CPU =  3686400
#         F_CPU =  4000000
#         F_CPU =  7372800
         F_CPU =  8000000
#         F_CPU = 11059200
#         F_CPU = 14745600
#         F_CPU = 16000000
#         F_CPU = 18432000
#         F_CPU = 20000000
#         F_CPU = 8000000


# Output format. (can be srec, ihex, binary)
FORMAT = ihex


# Target file name (without extension).
TARGET = main


# Object files directory
OBJDIR = obj


# List C source files here. (C dependencies are automatically generated.)
SRC = $(TARGET).c


# List C++ source files here. (C dependencies are automatically generated.)
CPPSRC =


# List Assembler source files here.
#     Make them always end in a capital .S.  Files ending in a lowercase .s
#     will not be considered source files but generated files (assembler
#     output from the compiler), and will be deleted upon "make clean"!
#     Even though the DOS/Win* filesystem matches both .s and .S the same,
#     it will preserve the spelling of the filenames, and gcc itself does
#     care about how the name is spelled on its command-line.
ASRC =


# Optimization level, can be [0, 1, 2, 3, s].
#     0 = turn off optimization. s = optimize for size.
#     (Note: 3 is not always the best optimization level. See avr-libc FAQ.)
OPT = s


# Debugging format.
#     Native formats for AVR-GCC's -g are dwarf-2 [default] or stabs.
#     AVR Studio 4.10 requires dwarf-2.
#     AVR [Extended] COFF format requires stabs, plus an avr-objcopy run.
DEBUG = dwarf-2


# List any extra directories to look for include files here.
#     Each directory must be seperated by a space.
#     Use forward slashes for directory separators.
#     For a directory that has spaces, enclose it in quotes.
EXTRAINCDIRS =


# Compiler flag to set the C Standard level.
#     c89   = "ANSI" C
#     gnu89 = c89 plus GCC extensions
#     c99   = ISO C99 standard (not yet fully implemented)
#     gnu99 = c99 plus GCC extensions
CSTANDARD = -std=gnu99


# Place -D or -U options here for C sources
CDEFS = -DF_CPU=$(F_CPU)UL


# Place -D or -U options here for C++ sources
CPPDEFS = -DF_CPU=$(F_CPU)UL
#CPPDEFS += -D__STDC_LIMIT_MACROS
#CPPDEFS += -D__STDC_CONSTANT_MACROS



#---------------- Compiler Options C ----------------
#  -g*:          generate debugging information
#  -O*:          optimization level
#  -f...:        tuning, see GCC manual and avr-libc documentation
#  -Wall...:     warning level
#  -Wa,...:      tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
#    -adhlns...: create assembler listing
CFLAGS = -g$(DEBUG)
CFLAGS += $(CDEFS)
CFLAGS += -O$(OPT)
#CFLAGS += -mint8
#CFLAGS += -mshort-calls
CFLAGS += -funsigned-char
CFLAGS += -funsigned-bitfields
CFLAGS += -fpack-struct
CFLAGS += -fshort-enums
#CFLAGS += -fno-unit-at-a-time
CFLAGS += -Wall
CFLAGS += -Wstrict-prototypes
CFLAGS += -Wundef
#CFLAGS += -Wunreachable-code
#CFLAGS += -Wsign-compare
CFLAGS += -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:%.c=$(OBJDIR)/%.lst)
CFLAGS += $(patsubst %,-I%,$(EXTRAINCDIRS))
CFLAGS += $(CSTANDARD)

# cts CFLAGS+= --combine -fwhole-program
CFLAGS+= -fwhole-program


#---------------- Compiler Options C++ ----------------
#  -g*:          generate debugging information
#  -O*:          optimization level
#  -f...:        tuning, see GCC manual and avr-libc documentation
#  -Wall...:     warning level
#  -Wa,...:      tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
#    -adhlns...: create assembler listing
CPPFLAGS = -g$(DEBUG)
CPPFLAGS += $(CPPDEFS)
CPPFLAGS += -O$(OPT)
#CPPFLAGS += -mint8
#CPPFLAGS += -mshort-calls
CPPFLAGS += -funsigned-char
CPPFLAGS += -funsigned-bitfields
CPPFLAGS += -fpack-struct
CPPFLAGS += -fshort-enums
CPPFLAGS += -fno-exceptions
#CPPFLAGS += -fno-unit-at-a-time
CPPFLAGS += -Wall
#CPPFLAGS += -Wstrict-prototypes
CFLAGS += -Wundef
#CPPFLAGS += -Wunreachable-code
#CPPFLAGS += -Wsign-compare
CPPFLAGS += -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:%.cpp=$(OBJDIR)/%.lst)
CPPFLAGS += $(patsubst %,-I%,$(EXTRAINCDIRS))
#CPPFLAGS += $(CSTANDARD)


#---------------- Assembler Options ----------------
#  -Wa,...:   tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
#  -ahlms:    create listing
#  -gstabs:   have the assembler create line number information; note that
#             for use in COFF files, additional information about filenames
#             and function names needs to be present in the assembler source
#             files -- see avr-libc docs [FIXME: not yet described there]
ASFLAGS = -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:%.S=$(OBJDIR)/%.lst),-gstabs


#---------------- Library Options ----------------
# Minimalistic printf version
PRINTF_LIB_MIN = -Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_min

# Floating point printf version (requires MATH_LIB = -lm below)
PRINTF_LIB_FLOAT = -Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_flt

# If this is left blank, then it will use the Standard printf version.
PRINTF_LIB =
#PRINTF_LIB = $(PRINTF_LIB_MIN)
#PRINTF_LIB = $(PRINTF_LIB_FLOAT)


# Minimalistic scanf version
SCANF_LIB_MIN = -Wl,-u,vfscanf -lscanf_min

# Floating point + %[ scanf version (requires MATH_LIB = -lm below)
SCANF_LIB_FLOAT = -Wl,-u,vfscanf -lscanf_flt

# If this is left blank, then it will use the Standard scanf version.
SCANF_LIB =
#SCANF_LIB = $(SCANF_LIB_MIN)
#SCANF_LIB = $(SCANF_LIB_FLOAT)


MATH_LIB = -lm



#---------------- External Memory Options ----------------

# 64 KB of external RAM, starting after internal RAM (ATmega128!),
# used for variables (.data/.bss) and heap (malloc()).
#EXTMEMOPTS = -Wl,-Tdata=0x801100,--defsym=__heap_end=0x80ffff

# 64 KB of external RAM, starting after internal RAM (ATmega128!),
# only used for heap (malloc()).
#EXTMEMOPTS = -Wl,--defsym=__heap_start=0x801100,--defsym=__heap_end=0x80ffff

EXTMEMOPTS =



#---------------- Linker Options ----------------
#  -Wl,...:     tell GCC to pass this to linker.
#    -Map:      create map file
#    --cref:    add cross reference to  map file
LDFLAGS = -Wl,-Map=$(TARGET).map,--cref
LDFLAGS += $(EXTMEMOPTS)
LDFLAGS += $(PRINTF_LIB) $(SCANF_LIB) $(MATH_LIB)
#LDFLAGS += -T linker_script.x



#---------------- Programming Options (avrdude) ----------------

# Programming hardware: alf avr910 avrisp bascom bsd
# dt006 pavr picoweb pony-stk200 sp12 stk200 stk500
#
# Type: avrdude -c ?
# to get a full listing.
#
AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER = dragon_pp


# com1 = serial port. Use lpt1 to connect to parallel port.
AVRDUDE_PORT = usb

AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH = -U flash:w:$(TARGET).hex
#AVRDUDE_WRITE_EEPROM = -U eeprom:w:$(TARGET).eep


# Uncomment the following if you want avrdude's erase cycle counter.
# Note that this counter needs to be initialized first using -Yn,
# see avrdude manual.
#AVRDUDE_ERASE_COUNTER = -y

# Uncomment the following if you do /not/ wish a verification to be
# performed after programming the device.
#AVRDUDE_NO_VERIFY = -V

# Increase verbosity level.  Please use this when submitting bug
# reports about avrdude. See <http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/avrdude>
# to submit bug reports.
#AVRDUDE_VERBOSE = -v -v

AVRDUDE_FLAGS = -p $(MCU) -P $(AVRDUDE_PORT) -c $(AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER)
AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_NO_VERIFY)
AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_VERBOSE)
AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_ERASE_COUNTER)



#---------------- Debugging Options ----------------

# For simulavr only - target MCU frequency.
DEBUG_MFREQ = $(F_CPU)

# Set the DEBUG_UI to either gdb or insight.
DEBUG_UI = gdb
# DEBUG_UI = insight

# Set the debugging back-end to either avarice, simulavr.
#DEBUG_BACKEND = avarice
DEBUG_BACKEND = simulavr

# GDB Init Filename.
GDBINIT_FILE = __avr_gdbinit

# When using avarice settings for the JTAG
JTAG_DEV = /dev/com1

# Debugging port used to communicate between GDB / avarice / simulavr.
DEBUG_PORT = 4242

# Debugging host used to communicate between GDB / avarice / simulavr, normally
#     just set to localhost unless doing some sort of crazy debugging when
#     avarice is running on a different computer.
DEBUG_HOST = localhost



#============================================================================


# Define programs and commands.
SHELL = sh
CC = avr-gcc
OBJCOPY = avr-objcopy
OBJDUMP = avr-objdump
SIZE = avr-size
NM = avr-nm
AVRDUDE = avrdude
REMOVE = rm -f
REMOVEDIR = rm -rf
COPY = cp
WINSHELL = cmd


# Define Messages
# English
MSG_ERRORS_NONE = Errors: none
MSG_BEGIN = -------- begin --------
MSG_END = --------  end  --------
MSG_SIZE_BEFORE = Size before:
MSG_SIZE_AFTER = Size after:
MSG_COFF = Converting to AVR COFF:
MSG_EXTENDED_COFF = Converting to AVR Extended COFF:
MSG_FLASH = Creating load file for Flash:
MSG_EEPROM = Creating load file for EEPROM:
MSG_EXTENDED_LISTING = Creating Extended Listing:
MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE = Creating Symbol Table:
MSG_LINKING = Linking:
MSG_COMPILING = Compiling C:
MSG_COMPILING_CPP = Compiling C++:
MSG_ASSEMBLING = Assembling:
MSG_CLEANING = Cleaning project:
MSG_CREATING_LIBRARY = Creating library:




# Define all object files.
OBJ = $(SRC:%.c=$(OBJDIR)/%.o) $(CPPSRC:%.cpp=$(OBJDIR)/%.o) $(ASRC:%.S=$(OBJDIR)/%.o)

# Define all listing files.
LST = $(SRC:%.c=$(OBJDIR)/%.lst) $(CPPSRC:%.cpp=$(OBJDIR)/%.lst) $(ASRC:%.S=$(OBJDIR)/%.lst)


# Compiler flags to generate dependency files.
GENDEPFLAGS = -MD -MP -MF .dep/$(@F).d


# Combine all necessary flags and optional flags.
# Add target processor to flags.
ALL_CFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. $(CFLAGS) $(GENDEPFLAGS)
ALL_CPPFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. -x c++ $(CPPFLAGS) $(GENDEPFLAGS)
ALL_ASFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. -x assembler-with-cpp $(ASFLAGS)





# Default target.
all: begin gccversion sizebefore build sizeafter end

# Change the build target to build a HEX file or a library.
build: elf hex eep lss sym
#build: lib


elf: $(TARGET).elf
hex: $(TARGET).hex
eep: $(TARGET).eep
lss: $(TARGET).lss
sym: $(TARGET).sym
LIBNAME=lib$(TARGET).a
lib: $(LIBNAME)



# Eye candy.
# AVR Studio 3.x does not check make's exit code but relies on
# the following magic strings to be generated by the compile job.

begin:
    @echo
    @echo $(MSG_BEGIN)

end:
    @echo $(MSG_END)
    @echo


# Display size of file.
HEXSIZE = $(SIZE) --target=$(FORMAT) $(TARGET).hex
ELFSIZE = $(SIZE) -A $(TARGET).elf
AVRMEM = avr-mem.sh $(TARGET).elf $(MCU)

sizebefore:
    @if test -f $(TARGET).elf; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_BEFORE); $(ELFSIZE); \
    $(AVRMEM) 2>/dev/null; echo; fi

sizeafter:
    @if test -f $(TARGET).elf; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_AFTER); $(ELFSIZE); \
    $(AVRMEM) 2>/dev/null; echo; fi



# Display compiler version information.
gccversion :
    @$(CC) --version



# Program the device.
program: $(TARGET).hex $(TARGET).eep
    $(AVRDUDE) $(AVRDUDE_FLAGS) $(AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH)
    $(AVRDUDE_WRITE_EEPROM)


# Generate avr-gdb config/init file which does the following:
#     define the reset signal, load the target file, connect to target, and set
#     a breakpoint at main().
gdb-config:
    @$(REMOVE) $(GDBINIT_FILE)
    @echo define reset >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)
    @echo SIGNAL SIGHUP >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)
    @echo end >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)
    @echo file $(TARGET).elf >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)
    @echo target remote $(DEBUG_HOST):$(DEBUG_PORT)  >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)
    ifeq ($(DEBUG_BACKEND),simulavr)
    @echo load  >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)
    endif
    @echo break main >> $(GDBINIT_FILE)

debug: gdb-config $(TARGET).elf
    ifeq ($(DEBUG_BACKEND), avarice)
    @echo Starting AVaRICE - Press enter when "waiting to connect" message displays.
    @$(WINSHELL) /c start avarice --jtag $(JTAG_DEV) --erase --program --file \
$(TARGET).elf $(DEBUG_HOST):$(DEBUG_PORT)
    @$(WINSHELL) /c pause

    else
    @$(WINSHELL) /c start simulavr --gdbserver --device $(MCU) --clock-freq \
    $(DEBUG_MFREQ) --port $(DEBUG_PORT)
    endif
    @$(WINSHELL) /c start avr-$(DEBUG_UI) --command=$(GDBINIT_FILE)




# Convert ELF to COFF for use in debugging / simulating in AVR Studio or VMLAB.
    COFFCONVERT = $(OBJCOPY) --debugging
    COFFCONVERT += --change-section-address .data-0x800000
    COFFCONVERT += --change-section-address .bss-0x800000
    COFFCONVERT += --change-section-address .noinit-0x800000
    COFFCONVERT += --change-section-address .eeprom-0x810000



coff: $(TARGET).elf
    @echo
    @echo $(MSG_COFF) $(TARGET).cof
    $(COFFCONVERT) -O coff-avr $< $(TARGET).cof


extcoff: $(TARGET).elf
    @echo
    @echo $(MSG_EXTENDED_COFF) $(TARGET).cof
    $(COFFCONVERT) -O coff-ext-avr $< $(TARGET).cof



# Create final output files (.hex, .eep) from ELF output file.
%.hex: %.elf
    @echo
    @echo $(MSG_FLASH) $@
    $(OBJCOPY) -O $(FORMAT) -R .eeprom $< $@

%.eep: %.elf
    @echo
    @echo $(MSG_EEPROM) $@
    -$(OBJCOPY) -j .eeprom --set-section-flags=.eeprom="alloc,load" \
--change-section-lma .eeprom=0 -O $(FORMAT) $< $@

# Create extended listing file from ELF output file.
%.lss: %.elf
    @echo
    @echo $(MSG_EXTENDED_LISTING) $@
    $(OBJDUMP) -h -S $< > $@

# Create a symbol table from ELF output file.
%.sym: %.elf
    @echo
    @echo $(MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE) $@
    $(NM) -n $< > $@



# Create library from object files.
.SECONDARY : $(TARGET).a
.PRECIOUS : $(OBJ)
%.a: $(OBJ)
    @echo
    @echo $(MSG_CREATING_LIBRARY) $@
    $(AR) $@ $(OBJ)


# Link: create ELF output file from object files.
.SECONDARY : $(TARGET).elf
.PRECIOUS : $(OBJ)
%.elf: $(OBJ)
    @echo
    @echo $(MSG_LINKING) $@
    $(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) $^ --output $@ $(LDFLAGS)


# Compile: create object files from C source files.
$(OBJDIR)/%.o : %.c
    @echo
    @echo $(MSG_COMPILING) $<
    $(CC) -c $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Compile: create object files from C++ source files.
$(OBJDIR)/%.o : %.cpp
    @echo
    @echo $(MSG_COMPILING_CPP) $<
    $(CC) -c $(ALL_CPPFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Compile: create assembler files from C source files.
%.s : %.c
    $(CC) -S $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Compile: create assembler files from C++ source files.
%.s : %.cpp
    $(CC) -S $(ALL_CPPFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Assemble: create object files from assembler source files.
$(OBJDIR)/%.o : %.S
    @echo
    @echo $(MSG_ASSEMBLING) $<
    $(CC) -c $(ALL_ASFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Create preprocessed source for use in sending a bug report.
%.i : %.c
    $(CC) -E -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. $(CFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Target: clean project.
clean: begin clean_list end

clean_list :
    @echo
    @echo $(MSG_CLEANING)
    $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).hex
    $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).eep
    $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).cof
    $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).elf
    $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).map
    $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).sym
    $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).lss
    $(REMOVEDIR) $(OBJDIR)
    $(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.s)
    $(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.d)
    $(REMOVEDIR) .dep


# Create object files directory
$(shell mkdir $(OBJDIR) 2>/dev/null)


# Include the dependency files.
-include $(shell mkdir .dep 2>/dev/null) $(wildcard .dep/*)


# Listing of phony targets.
.PHONY : all begin finish end sizebefore sizeafter gccversion \
build elf hex eep lss sym coff extcoff \
clean clean_list program debug gdb-config

main.c

#include <util/delay.h>
#include <avr/io.h>
int main (void) {
  DDRB  = 0xff;
  while(1) {
    PORTB |= (1<<PB1);    //Bit setzen - set bit
    _delay_ms(500);       // halbe sekunde warten - wait half a second
    PORTB &= ~(1<<PB1);   // Bit loeschen - reset bit
    _delay_ms(500);       // halbe sekunde warten - wait half a second
  }
 return 0;
}

The "build process" (well, that's a little overstated):

$ make

-------- begin --------
avr-gcc (GCC) 4.7.2
Copyright (C) 2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Dies ist freie Software; die Kopierbedingungen stehen in den Quellen. Es
gibt KEINE Garantie; auch nicht für MARKTGÄNGIGKEIT oder FÜR SPEZIELLE ZWECKE.


Size before:
main.elf  :
section          size      addr
.data               0   8388864
.text             214         0
.stab            1848         0
.stabstr          231         0
.comment           17         0
.debug_aranges     32         0
.debug_info       363         0
.debug_abbrev     225         0
.debug_line       222         0
.debug_frame       36         0
.debug_str        201         0
.debug_ranges      16         0
Total            3405




Size after:
main.elf  :
section          size      addr
.data               0   8388864
.text             214         0
.stab            1848         0
.stabstr          231         0
.comment           17         0
.debug_aranges     32         0
.debug_info       363         0
.debug_abbrev     225         0
.debug_line       222         0
.debug_frame       36         0
.debug_str        201         0
.debug_ranges      16         0
Total            3405



-------- end --------

Uploading everything to the ATMega1284p through the AVR Dragon using HVPP:

$ avrdude -c dragon_pp -P usb -p m1284p –u –U flash:w:main.hex

avrdude: AVR device initialized and ready to accept instructions

Reading | ################################################## | 100% 0.15s

avrdude: Device signature = 0x1e9705

avrdude: safemode: Fuses OK
avrdude: jtagmkII_close(): bad response to GO command: RSP_ILLEGAL_EMULATOR_MODE

avrdude done.  Thank you.

This seems complete, but does not yield a blinkon PORTB PB1 (or any other pin for that). If I have forgotten anything that could be of help, please let me know.

\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ Everything takes work & effort... \$\endgroup\$ – user151324 May 18 '13 at 14:50
  • \$\begingroup\$ Do you have avrdude? \$\endgroup\$ – user151324 May 18 '13 at 14:53
  • \$\begingroup\$ Well, I figured the examples I had aren't necessary, but here (see above) we go. Yes, I do have avrdude and the gcc-avr tools as do I have libc-avr (this is on OS X 10.8). \$\endgroup\$ – Christian May 18 '13 at 14:58
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Chrisitian Ok. \$\endgroup\$ – user151324 May 18 '13 at 15:06
2
\$\begingroup\$

This is my general purpose Makefile for use on Linux. Haven't tested it on Windows or iOS. Only the first few variables normally need to be edited.

baudrate=19200
src=project
avrType=atmega1284p
avrFreq=20000000
programmerDev=/dev/ttyUSB003
programmerType=arduino

cflags=-g -DF_CPU=$(avrFreq) -Wall -Os -Werror -Wextra

memoryTypes=calibration eeprom efuse flash fuse hfuse lfuse lock signature application apptable boot prodsig usersig

.PHONY: backup clean disassemble dumpelf edit eeprom elf flash fuses help hex makefile object program

SHELL := /bin/bash

ifdef baudrate
    baud=-b$(baudrate)
else
    baud=
endif

help:
        @echo 'backup           Read all known memory types from controller and write it into a file. Available memory types: $(memoryTypes)'
        @echo 'clean            Delete automatically created files.'
        @echo 'disassemble      Compile source code, then disassemble object file to mnemonics.'
        @echo 'dumpelf          Dump the contents of the .elf file. Useful for information purposes only.'
        @echo 'edit             Edit the .cpp source file.'
        @echo 'eeprom           Extract EEPROM data from .elf file and program the device with it.'
        @echo 'elf              Create $(src).elf'
        @echo 'flash            Program $(src).hex to controller flash memory.'
        @echo 'fuses            Extract FUSES data from .elf file and program the device with it.'
        @echo 'help             Show this text.'
        @echo 'hex              Create all hex files for flash, eeprom and fuses.'
        @echo 'object           Create $(src).o'
        @echo 'program          Do all programming to controller.'

edit:
    [[ ! -f $(src).cpp ]] && echo '// VERSION: ' > $(src).cpp
    vi '$(src).cpp' -s <( printf ":set number\n:1 s/^\/\/ VERSION: .*$$/\/\/ VERSION: $$(date)/g\n" )

makefile:
        vi Makefile


clean: 
        rm $(src).elf $(src).eeprom.hex $(src).fuses.hex $(src).lfuse.hex $(src).hfuse.hex $(src).efuse.hex $(src).flash.hex $(src).o
        date

object:
        avr-gcc $(cflags) -mmcu=$(avrType) -Wa,-ahlmns=$(src).lst -c -o $(src).o $(src).cpp 

elf: object
        avr-gcc $(cflags) -mmcu=$(avrType) -o $(src).elf $(src).o
        chmod a-x $(src).elf 2>&1

hex:    elf
        avr-objcopy -j .text -j .data -O ihex $(src).elf $(src).flash.hex
        avr-objcopy -j .eeprom --set-section-flags=.eeprom="alloc,load" --change-section-lma .eeprom=0 -O ihex $(src).elf $(src).eeprom.hex
        avr-objcopy -j .fuse -O ihex $(src).elf $(src).fuses.hex --change-section-lma .fuse=0
        srec_cat $(src).fuses.hex -Intel -crop 0x00 0x01 -offset  0x00 -O $(src).lfuse.hex -Intel
        srec_cat $(src).fuses.hex -Intel -crop 0x01 0x02 -offset -0x01 -O $(src).hfuse.hex -Intel
        srec_cat $(src).fuses.hex -Intel -crop 0x02 0x03 -offset -0x02 -O $(src).efuse.hex -Intel

disassemble: elf
        avr-objdump -s -j .fuse $(src).elf
        avr-objdump -C -d $(src).elf 2>&1

eeprom: hex
        #avrdude -p$(avrType) -c$(programmerType) -P$(programmerDev) $(baud) -v -U eeprom:w:$(src).eeprom.hex
        date

fuses: hex
        avrdude -p$(avrType) -c$(programmerType) -P$(programmerDev) $(baud) -v -U lfuse:w:$(src).lfuse.hex
        #avrdude -p$(avrType) -c$(programmerType) -P$(programmerDev) $(baud) -v -U hfuse:w:$(src).hfuse.hex
        #avrdude -p$(avrType) -c$(programmerType) -P$(programmerDev) $(baud) -v -U efuse:w:$(src).efuse.hex
        date

dumpelf: elf
        avr-objdump -s -h $(src).elf

program: flash eeprom fuses

flash: hex
        avrdude -p$(avrType) -c$(programmerType) -P$(programmerDev) $(baud) -v -U flash:w:$(src).flash.hex
        date

backup:
        @for memory in $(memoryTypes); do \
                avrdude -p $(avrType) -c$(programmerType) -P$(programmerDev) $(baud) -v -U $$memory:r:./$(avrType).$$memory.hex:i; \
        done

Compiling is configured in such a way that any warning will throw an error and exit. However it may sometimes seem a nuisance, it is actually a good programming practice.

I usually create a directory with the name of my project, eg. blink. Then in that directory I copy my generic Makefile and I create project.cpp. I always use the same name for the cpp file, so I don't have to change my Makefile

To compile and flash project.cpp you just type make flash. If you want more information about the other options in the makefile type make help.

What happens when you type make flash is:

  • the dependency hex is executed;
  • hex in turn has a dependency of its own: elf, which is executed;
  • elf has a dependency as well: object, which is therefore executed;
  • object has no dependencies, so it executes the commands on the following line: avr-gcc ...;
  • when the object dependency is fulfilled, control is given back to elf which executes the commands on the lines below it;
  • control is given back to hex ... ;
  • control is given back to flash ... .

If you are not planning to use this Makefile for burning the fuses, you can comment out the srec_cat lines, a command that often needs to be installed (apt-get install srecord on Debian'like distributions).

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Thanks, seems to be a very complete solution. The eeprom : hex and fuses : hex parts are unused, right? what are the date lines at the end of make-parts for? \$\endgroup\$ – Christian May 18 '13 at 19:11
  • \$\begingroup\$ I don't like to accidentally program fuses/eeprom, so I commented out some of the lines that I haven't tested/needed yet. They should work, just never needed them yet. The date lines just print current date and time on the terminal so I know when the last moment was I executed the code when I scroll back. \$\endgroup\$ – jippie May 18 '13 at 19:28
  • \$\begingroup\$ For future updates: git.linformatronics.nl/gitweb/?p=makefile;a=summary \$\endgroup\$ – jippie May 18 '13 at 19:56
4
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Assuming you have avrdude you may run these simple commands to upload a HEX file to your AVR.

This command will compile your .c or .cpp file into a .elf file:

1: avr-gcc -mmcu=atmega1284p -Wall -Os -o src.elf blink.c

The -mmcu= part specifies your part so that it could compile your .c file for your ATmega1284p

And you can see clearly that you can change the name of the .elf file or the input file

This command will parse your .elf file into a .hex file:

2: avr-objcopy -j .text -j .data -O ihex src.elf src.hex

And as you see again, you can change the input files (src.elf = input & src.hex = output)

And this command will upload the .hex file to your AVR:

3: avrdude -p m1284p -c arduino -P /dev/ttyACM0 -b 9600 -U flash:w:src.hex

The -p part specifies the part which you will program

The -c tag shows what type of programmer you will use

The -P tag shows where your programmer is located, this tag is optional, but if you get any errors on avrdude not finding your AVR, you should add in the -P tag, if you do not know where your device is located, open the Arduino IDE, and try uploading a file to it without your Arduino plugged in. It should say it could not find your device in so and so directory.

The -b command specifies the baud rate between the programmer and the computer

The -U uploads the .hex file to your AVR

I have found using these commands with all the tags and variables most helpful and I don't get many errors too often either.

If you get any errors, feel free to comment and I will help you out. I don't like Makefiles, I have a hard time with them. Hope that helps!

P.S. I have made a Java 'makefile' that uploads everything for you in the simplest way, if your interested please note below.

EDIT: (Thanks Christian)

Please put this in your .c or .cpp file:

#define F_CPU ... // The clock rate of your AVR, usually measured in MHz
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  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Thanks! I amended your gcc-avr commanline with the -DF_CPU=8000000 parameter because avr-gcc complained about it missing. And yes, I'd very much like to take a look at your Java makefile! \$\endgroup\$ – Christian May 18 '13 at 16:31
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Christian Ooops! I forgot to add that in, I would rather put in this in your .c or .cpp: #define F_CPU ... Thanks for that! I'll add that in! \$\endgroup\$ – user151324 May 18 '13 at 16:36
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Christian Ok, I hope you know bash well as it says in your profile, join me for a chat here: chat.stackexchange.com/rooms/15/electrical-engineering as soon as you can, i'll help you get is all set up. The makefile is pretty awesome! \$\endgroup\$ – user151324 May 18 '13 at 16:48

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