I have burned one tmc2209 and 3 drv8825 drivers. I have a linear rail with nema23 on it. Esp32-tmc-stepper conf I wanted to move it fast, so i pushed the stage and got a magic pop and smoke.

I made a mistake, and wanted to replace it, but only had a drv8825 drivers (at least i had 10 of them)

Connected without a rail, changed some wiring and code. Looked ok. Then i rotated the stepper motor by Hand, and driver stopped working. I thought there is a problem with a driver, so i replace. Sroty short. I burned 3 of them. Just for fun i put a led into stepper connector and rotated it again. Led didnt burn. And lit up

Sorry for a long intro. I didnt thought that rotation with hand may dammage the driver. Tried to google and didnt find anyone using any protection for the driver.

(I didnt use 100uf cap on the Vin, but i dont think this is the problem)

Im sure that with a hand i cannot generat enough current to burn it, so how then?

Clarification: How can i protect the driver? Should i protect the driver? Can i use a TVS on both coils for this, will it work?


  • \$\begingroup\$ Please clarify your specific problem or provide additional details to highlight exactly what you need. As it's currently written, it's hard to tell exactly what you're asking. \$\endgroup\$
    – Community Bot
    Commented Jan 17 at 1:32
  • \$\begingroup\$ Can you share schematics of what you have made? \$\endgroup\$
    – Aaron
    Commented Jan 17 at 4:37

1 Answer 1


For ideas on TMC2209 driver protection (including ESD) see the TMC2209 datasheet section 3.7, and the "Attention" note below section 3.1.

Similar protective circuits may be beneficial when using the DRV8825 driver, however these were not found in a quick search of the DVR8825 datasheet.

Do not under estimate the possibility of an excessive ESD build up and subsequent discharge. High speed plastic parts and rubber belts can easily be the source of ESD build up. If inadequate grounding or dissipation protection is not provided a discharge path could exist back through the driver's electrical connections.

  • \$\begingroup\$ As im reading from tmc datasheet they are talking about ESD protections, not a flyback. I dont have ESD problem. Only manual motor rotation which i cannot prevent. So i thought to use some flyback diodes for this. \$\endgroup\$
    – aleXela
    Commented Jan 17 at 8:26
  • \$\begingroup\$ I mean not the static el. But the induced motor coils. \$\endgroup\$
    – aleXela
    Commented Jan 17 at 9:00
  • \$\begingroup\$ @aleXela On a 2-coil stepper motor the coil current is bidirectional so standard flyback diodes are not an option, bidirectional TVS diodes could be used instead. The datasheet note on page 11: "Provide overvoltage protection in case the motor could be manually turned at a high velocity, or in case the driver could become cut off from the main supply capacitors". While section 3.7 includes ideas on ESD protection it also addresses: "more elaborate motor output protection", specifically the note below the second diagram: "varistors V1 and V2 protect against inductive motor coil overvoltage". \$\endgroup\$
    – Nedd
    Commented Jan 19 at 10:42

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