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I have this part from RS: https://docs.rs-online.com/4238/0900766b81679254.pdf.

I understand quite well about why the solenoid can output more force (given same distance) or have higher power input (W) for lower duty cycles, which is basically due to the coil being allowed to cool off.

Now, the part datasheet has this graph and I am considering on operating at <100% duty cycle to have more force available to me. The problem is that, it wasn't stated in the datasheet about the maximum ON time for each duty cycle.

If I want to have >900grams force available at stroke = 1mm, I may consider using 50% duty cycle operation. However, 1s ON and 1s OFF is 50% duty as well as 10ms ON and 10ms OFF. Which one is applicable? My application is that, I will have a weight suspended at initial stroke = 1mm (there is a jig that will limit the stroke so that it will not go all the way through > 1mm). I want to make sure the solenoid will be able to pull the weight upwards and that weight/mass is still undecided (now, it is < 500 grams but could become >800 grams depending on material availability).

I tested the solenoid and I am sure that at 0 mm (fully retracted), it can hold >2.5kg weight (without power, basically only the permanent magnet is the holding force), so my main concern is being able to pull a possibly >800 grams at stroke = 1mm.

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It's a thermal limitation so probably a second or two is fine for the rating given. The time to latch should be much less than 1 second, as I understand it.

The datasheet is pretty sketchy though, so there is some reason for concern. They don't specify a maximum Ta, or specify at what Ta the duty cycles are allowed. Maybe there is more detailed data available, this "data" strikes me as curated and perhaps obfuscated from some "real" manufacturer. Just looks that way to me.

For example, here is a similar product that has more complete information. I also suspect that if you got on the phone to them they would have a competent applications engineer that could provide further guidance.

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