How can I start PIC Microcontroller Programming on Mac OS X. Can I use an Arduino connected to my Mac has a programmer? Or do I need to buy specific programmer board and serial adapters?
You can use the PICKit Flash Starter Key (USB!). Check this website: www.teammojo.org/PICkit/pickit1.html
There used to be a Cocoa GUI to program the PICKit made by someone at Microchip, but I can't find it now... (source code was available!).
You can compile your code using gpasm (gputils.sourceforge.net), and then flash it into the PIC using the PICKit.
I found also this simulator that runs perfect on the mac: www.feertech.com/misim/homepage.html
The MPLAB X (runs on Java, based on Netbeans) is available here for Mac OS 10.X.
You will need a special programmer and you can use SDCC and xcode which you can get from apple.
I don't think you can do it from an Arduino board. There are various specs around the internet for serial based pic programmer boards, or you can get them from Microchip (the manufacturers of PIC chips), if you go to their site http://www.microchipdirect.com you should find most of their offerings under development tools, including USB based programmers. I'm not sure what software there is available as an IDE for the Mac but Google is your friend in situations like this.