1-wire is kind of designed for this polling, but you might be able to get around it with some creative analog circuitry.
Presumably the EEPROM will draw some current when it is connected. You could use a 10 or maybe even 100 ohm resistor in series with the ground line for the 1-wire device you want to detect. Use a comparator to compare the voltage across this resistor to some reference voltage that works for you, and connect the output of the comparator to an interrupt line on your microcontroller.
simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab
With the example above, your reference voltage is VCC * 1k/121k or about 41mV for a 5V supply. 41mV across a 10 ohm sense resistor is about 4mA of current to trip the comparator. This is just a wild guess, your levels may be much lower. Check the EEPROM datasheet. Depending on the comparator you might also have to include a pull-up resistor on its output and you might also want to include a bit of hysteresis. Note that I've connected the reference and sense resistor up so that when the EEPROM draws more than the reference, the output of the comparator goes LOW.
You would want to experiment with the resistor to find the highest resistance you can get away with without making the 1-wire bus flaky (the higher the resistance, the more of a voltage drop you'll have which makes detection easier, but also the more of a difference in what the EEPROM sees as 0V and the real system 0V level).
You could also put the resistor on the data line but you'll then have to use either a differential amp or a high side current sensing circuit, and again too high of a resistance will muddle the communications.
In either case, you'll probably want to disable the interrupt when you are actively communicating to prevent a whole storm of interrupts as the device current consumption goes up due to an active communications link.