Are there any micro-controllers which support writing data to large sized SATA disks?
SATA works at very high frequencies. If I look at this data connector sheet I basically see a TX/RX connection with differential signals because of the very high speed. 1.5Gbit of data would need to be proccesed, that's 1.5GHz signals. I've a feeling that it is a very high speed for a microcontroller to handle.
My best bet for you is to get a SATA to PATA converter and work with the PATA interface instead. It lowers the speed you need to look at bits, because the data is offered in a parallel way. That's still the easier way to work with.
I don't know whether you still want to use a microcontroller for that. I think a FPGA might become the better choice in such projects, but that depends on your goal.