Is it ok that the resistors aren't connected directly to the positive? Any advice, warnings, or rule of thumbs?
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It doesn't matter what side of the LEDs the resistors are on. The positions of each LED and resistor could be swapped without affecting operation.
Because the LEDs share a common ground, you will need to use digitalWrite(pin, HIGH) to make them light up. If the LEDs shared a common positive instead, you would need to use digitalWrite(pin, LOW) to make them light up.
The only thing that disheartens me about the photographs is the way the component leads have been bent, and how the components are at random angles. I would have a resistor from ground to j30, then an LED from h30 to h29, then the cable to the Arduino in f29.