# How to compute Timer1 period?

I'm trying to configure Timer1 of a pic24h to 1ms per timer tick but don't seem to be able to get the math to match my results.

I have a 20MHz external oscillator (with a 1M resistor in parallel for stability) and think I have it enabled with the following configuration bits set in code:

#pragma config FNOSC = PRIPLL           // Oscillator Mode (Primary Oscillator (XT, HS, EC) w/ PLL)
#pragma config IESO = ON                // Internal External Switch Over Mode (Start-up device with FRC, then automatically switch to user-selected oscillator source when ready)


I'm toggling a pin and watching it on the scope to check my math. I thought the calculation is as follows:

//  ms_per_tick = ((F_OSC / 2)/prescaler)^-1 * PR1
//                    = ((20MHz / 2) / 8)^-1 * 4200
//          NO= 1ms


bit a value of PR1 = 4200 is about the closest I can get to a tick of 1ms.

What am I missing? Does the PLL change the value of what I think is F_OSC. Is there a way to validate F_OSC?

The ISR just increments a variable and clears the interrupt flag. Here is the initialization code:

T1CONbits.TCKPS = 0b01;   // configure the timer prescaler to divide-by-8
T1CONbits.TCS = 0;        // do NOT use the external clock
PR1 = 4200;               // configure the timer period

// configure the Timer1 interrupt
_T1IF = 0;             // begin with the interrupt flag cleared
_T1IE = 1;             // enable the interrupt
T1CONbits.TON = 1;         // turn on timer1


CLKDIV is: 0x3040 (PLLPOST = 1, PLLPRE = 0)
PLLFBD is: 0x0030 (PLLDIV = 48)


I also just found this on p.16 of the datasheet:

"If the PLL of the target device is enabled and configured for the device start-up oscillator, the maximum oscillator source frequency must be limited to ≤8 MHz for start-up with the PLL enabled to comply with device PLL start-up conditions. This means that if the external oscillator frequency is outside this range, the application must start-up in the FRC mode first. The default PLL settings after a POR with an oscillator frequency outside this range will violate the device operating speed. Once the device powers up, the application firmware can initialize the PLL SFRs, CLKDIV and PLLDBF to a suitable value, and then perform a clock switch to the Oscillator + PLL clock source. Note that clock switching must be enabled in the device Configuration word."

Now, the first thing I run after main is this example code:

void ConfigureOscillator(void) {
// Disable the Watch Dog Timer
RCONbits.SWDTEN = 0;

// When clock switch occurs switch to Prim Osc (HS, XT, EC)with PLL
__builtin_write_OSCCONH(0x03);  // Set OSCCONH for clock switch
__builtin_write_OSCCONL(0x01);  // Start clock switching

// Wait for Clock switch to occur
while(OSCCONbits.COSC != 0b011);

// Wait for PLL to lock, if PLL is used
while (OSCCONbits.LOCK != 1);
}

• Where is your timer initialization code and ISR? Also, pretty sure you want FNOSC set to HSPLL, but double check that for the 16 bit PICs. Nov 4, 2013 at 4:08
• @MattYoung HSPLL is not an option in the drop-down menu under Window >> PIC Memory Views >> Configuration bits for this PIC. Nov 4, 2013 at 4:25

Two things to recognize:

1. the timer is an upcounter that interrupts on overflows at which point you should reload the start of the upcounter.
2. the frequency is the output of the PLL if you have one configured
= (f_osc / 4)^-1 * prescaler * (65535 - TMR1)
= (16MHz / 4)^-1 * 1 * (1000)
= 250us


Where timer is being used as a 16-bit timer and TMR1 is the value written to TMR1. I like to specify the preload as a negative number because it's more intuitive than seeing something as less than UINT16_MAX:

#define TIMER1_TIME  (-1000)

void InitTimer1(void) {
T1CONbits.T1CKPS = 0b00;              // Prescaler is divide-by-1
T1CONbits.TMR1CS = 0b00;              // Clock source is (f_osc / 4)
TMR1H = TIMER1_TIME >> 8;             // Load the start of the upcounter
TMR1L = TIMER1_TIME & 0xFF;
IPR1bits.TMR1IP = 1;                  // Set to high priority
PIR1bits.TMR1IF = 0;                  // Clear interrupt flag
PIE1bits.TMR1IE = 1;                  // Enable interrupt
T1CONbits.TMR1ON = 1;                 // Turn on the the timer
}

void MyIsr(void) {
// Reload the start of the upcounter
TMR1H = TIMER1_TIME >> 8;
TMR1L = TIMER1_TIME & 0xFF;
}


The timer0 its a 16bits timer, so tu set to interrupt every 1 second you need set:

- Prescaler @ 128

The equation:

$T= \left(\left({1 \over Fosc}\right)\times4\right)\times Presc\times\left(Resolution - Preload\right)$

Where:

• T = Period = 1s
• Fosc = Oscilator Frequency = 20Mhz
• Presc = Prescaler = 128
• Resolution = 2^16 = 65535

The result will be: 0.9999872s, it will be the nearest from 1s will can reach.

Sample code:

// Timer1 Registers: Prescaler=1:1; TMR1 Preset=60536; Freq=1.000,00Hz; Period=1,00 ms
T1CON.T1CKPS1 = 0;  // bits 5-4  Prescaler Rate Select bits
T1CON.T1CKPS0 = 0;  // bit 4
T1CON.T1OSCEN = 1;  // bit 3 Timer1 Oscillator Enable Control: bit 1=on
T1CON.T1SYNC  = 1;  // bit 2 Timer1 External Clock Input Synchronization Control bit:1=Do not synchronize external clock input
T1CON.TMR1CS  = 0;  // bit 1 Timer1 Clock Source Select bit:0=Internal clock (FOSC/4) / 1 = External clock from pin T1CKI (on the rising edge)
T1CON.TMR1ON  = 1;  // bit 0 enables timer
TMR1H = $EC; // preset for timer1 MSB register TMR1L =$78;         // preset for timer1 LSB register


Using CCS compiler on MPALB 8:

// Timer 1 declaration
setup_timer_1(T1_INTERNAL|T1_DIV_BY_128);
set_timer1(26474);
enable_interrupts(INT_TIMER1);
enable_interrupts(GLOBAL);

// Timer 1 Method
#INT_TIMER1
void timer1Method()
{