Does the output voltage depend on anything except for the Duty Cycle?
Assuming no losses across switch, inductor and caps.
The answer depends on the operating mode of the converter.
In discontinuous conduction mode, which is what you usually have with a passive rectifier and light loads, the output voltage depends on the input voltage, the duty cycle and the load. With light (or no) loads, the voltage can rise arbitrarily high.
In continuous conduction mode — and assuming "ideal" components — the output voltage depends only on the input voltage and the duty cycle.
Continuous conduction mode means that current is always flowing in the inductor. This can be achieved with a passive rectifier if the load current is always above some minimum value. It can also be achieved if you use active (synchronous) rectification (a second switch) that allows current to flow in both directions.
Output voltage depends primarily on input voltage, duty cycle and load. Each switching cycle an inductor is "charged" with energy and this energy is passed to the load. Power to the load is energy per cycle multiplied by switching frequency.
Without a load and with a fixed duty cycle, the output voltage would rise until the boost transistor or output diode failed.
For boost converter the output voltage is in series with the input voltage so it's a little bit more complex to work out compared to a buck regulator.
Energy transferred is dependent on the on time of the switch, the value of the inductor and the input voltage.