RealTerm, a freeware Windows terminal program, lists these UART rates in its Baud menu:
110, 150, 300, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200, 230400, 460800, 921600
However these are actually bits per second (bps), not baud -- see below.
110 baud was used by 8-level Teletypes like the ASR-33. I'm not aware where 150 Baud was used, but it is a doubling of 75 baud, commonly used (along with 60 baud) for 5-level TTYs.
300 bps was the standard for the first widely-used telephone modems in the 1960's. A number of 30 character per second terminals appeared at the same time.
Above 300 bps/300 baud, which used simple frequency shift keying (FSK), the figures for bps and baud (symbols or tones per second) are not the same. For example, a 1200 bps modem actually runs at 600 baud, and a 4800 bps modem runs at 1600 baud. Refer to the table under Bandwidths in this article. The difference is because in addition to using a certain number of tone pulses per second, phase-shift keying and other methods are used to extract additional bandwidth from the same baud rate to get higher and higher bps. (So a 56K modem is actually only running at 8000 baud.)
As you can see, the list of UART rates essentially started at 75 and continually doubled (skipping 600), until getting to 38400, where it was multiplied by 1.5 to get 57600. 56K bps is the limit for an analog telephone line. The higher rates 115200 upwards (once again doubling starting at 57600) are used for hard-wired connections.
As mikeselectricstuff mentioned, 14400 and 28800 bps were introduced as 1.5 x 9600 and 1.5 x 19200 when modems speeds couldn't be doubled at the time, but are seldom used anymore.